A detailed investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of four single starter strains, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 303, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris AM2, and Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 on the proteolytic, lipolytic and sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheese. Cheeses produced using the highly autolytic starters 4571 and AM2 positively impacted on flavour development, whereas cheeses produced from the poorly autolytic starters 303 and HP developed off-flavours. Starter selection impacted significantly on the proteolytic and sensory characteristics of the resulting Cheddar cheeses. It appeared that the autolytic and/or lipolytic properties of starter strains also influenced lipolysis, however lipolysis appeared to be limited due to a possible lack of availability or access to suitable milk fat substrates over ripening. The impact of lipolysis on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheese was unclear, possibly due to minimal differences in the extent of lipolysis between the cheeses at the end of ripening. As anticipated seasonal milk supply influenced both proteolysis and lipolysis in Cheddar cheese. The contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria towards proteolysis and lipolysis over the first 8 months of Cheddar cheese ripening was negligible.