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Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae cause myiasis in animals and humans. To register a commercial product to control this dipteran is necessary to experiment on animals. The in vitro test was standardized to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of commercial topical products. Five formulations were analysed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro test, a colony was formed and three replicates (n = 200) of each larval stage (L1, L2 and L3) were treated. The viability of the larvae was evaluated after 5 and 30 min, and at 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 60 and 72 h post-treatment (HPT). For the in vivo test, 30 bovines divided into six groups were castrated to achieve natural infestation with C. hominivorax. Animals in the treated groups received the product. Myiasis and efficacy were evaluated 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 HPT. Four formulations tested in the in vitro test achieved 100% efficacy at 24 HPT. In the in vivo experiment only one achieved 100% efficacy at 24 HPT. However, all products achieved the maximum efficacy by the end of study. The in vitro test developed here could be adopted to evaluate the efficacy of topical products for the control of C. hominivorax larvae.
“The unwearied, unostentatious, and inglorious crusade of England against slavery may probably be regarded as among the three or four perfectly virtuous acts recorded in the history of nations,” said the great historian W. E. H. Lecky in his 1869 History of European Morals. But what exactly did the British seek to achieve with the abolition of slavery? Through what means? And what were the consequences? These are just three of the questions that have animated the pens of historians of slavery and the transatlantic slave trade. In 1807, shortly after abolishing their own trade, the British engaged in a campaign to suppress the entire traffic. They signed bilateral treaties with foreign nations, deployed a naval squadron to patrol the coasts of Africa and the Americas, and rescued thousands of Africans illegally forced into the Atlantic. The effectiveness of these efforts on the ground was minimal; however, the ideological result was nothing short of monumental. The trade not only ended in less than a century, but the campaign also shifted the world’s attitudes toward slavery: from one that viewed it as morally acceptable to another that considered it inhumane.
Given the nation's prominent role, historians have naturally paid more attention to Britain than to any other country involved in this suppression effort. However, not all of them agree on British intentions and objectives. Some argue that the British were economically interested in the suppression of the trade. Eric Williams, for example, believes that slavery and the slave trade helped finance the Industrial Revolution in England, but, when industrialization reached maturity, “the British West Indian monopoly, prohibiting the importation of non-British-plantation sugar for home consumption, stood in the way.” Other historians view British abolition in a dramatically different way, noting that, by retreating from the traffic, the British were actually committing an economic suicide, since plantation slavery in the West Indies was actually expanding at that time. Seymour Drescher points out, “Economic interests cannot account for either the timing, the occurrence, or the maintenance of the abolition of the slave trade between 1787 and 1820.”
The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and economic impact of long-acting insulin analogues (LAIA) compared to NPH for type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1).
A search was performed in five electronic databases to find systematic reviews (SR) comparing at least a LAIA to NPH insulin for DM1. Budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of Brazilian public health system (SUS), with NPH insulin as the base scenario. The costs were extracted from the Integrated System of Administration of General Services (SIASG). The market share was calculated per month, using a logarithmic function with maximum diffusion of 50% at the end of the time horizon - five years.
A total of 160 studies were identified and seven SR of low to uncertain risk of bias were selected. LAIA have shown modest clinical benefit and its effect is more prominent for the control of severe and nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Insulins glargine and detemir compared to NPH were associated with reduction in HbA1c levels between 0.16% and 0.40% and associated with lower risk of episodes of severe hypoglycemia. Insulin degludec compared to NPH showed no statistically significant difference in the reduction of HbA1c levels and in the episodes of severe hypoglycemia. The budget impact ranges from USD 210 million (detemir) to USD 670 million (degludec) over five years.
The use of LAIA as a basal insulin regimen for DM1 may benefit more patients with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia. However, the fragility of the outcomes considered to evaluate the clinical impact of LAIA and the high budget impact with its use should be considered, and may compromise SUS sustainability. In view of these aspects, CONITEC recommended the incorporation of one of the LAIA, if the treatment is equal to or less than that of NPH insulin and according to the criteria established by a guideline.
We evaluated the effects of cattle manure and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in maize plants growing in a semiarid area of Brazilian north-east in 2012 and 2013. Three isolates of AMF (Acaulosporalongula URM-FMA 07 and URM-FMA 03, Claroideoglomusetunicatum UNIVASF 06A) were used, with or without the application of cattle manure, during two growing cycles. In the first year, significant effects of inoculation were detected for straw yield only when the manure was applied. In the second year, there was an interaction between fertilisation and inoculation for plant height and grain yield, with the highest values in the fertilised treatments. Inoculation with A. longula demonstrated that mycorrhizal inoculation in field-grown plants could be an alternative management for improving plant growth and grain yield, reducing the use of cattle manure. The AMF sporulation and mycorrhizal colonisation were improved after inoculation, and A. longula URM-FMA 07 increased sporulation by more than 15 times while inoculation with C. etunicatum increased sporulation by more than 3 times. The mycorrhizal inoculation is a management practice that can be useful for recovering or maintaining AMF infective propagules in soil, showing potential to be used in large-scale field conditions in Brazilian semiarid. Although mycorrhisation presents high agricultural relevance due to benefits promoted to the soil and plants, the knowledge about the factors influencing the interactions among microorganisms, soil and plants need to be broadened aiming to achieve successful crop management in semiarid regions.
The present study aimed to investigate whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI) is an effective predictor to identify unhealthy metabolic phenotype by comparing normal-weight and overweight individuals.
A population-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected by interviews, anthropometric evaluation, dietetic, clinical and laboratory tests. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and prevalence ratio (PR), obtained from Poisson regression, were used to compare the predictive capacity of the obesity indicators evaluated (VAI, BMI, waist and neck circumference, waist-to-height and waist-to-hip ratios) and their association with the unhealthy metabolic phenotype. All analyses were stratified by sex and by nutritional status.
Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
A total of 854 Brazilian adults (20–59 years old) of both sexes.
VAI was the best predictor for unhealthy metabolic phenotype among men (AUC = 0·865) and women (AUC = 0·843) at normal weight. VAI also had the best predictive capacity among overweight women (AUC = 0·903). Among overweight men, its accuracy (AUC = 0·830) was higher than that of waist-to-hip ratio. In the adjusted regression models, VAI was the indicator most strongly associated with the unhealthy metabolic phenotype, especially among those with normal weight (PR = 6·74; 95 % CI 3·15, 14·42 for men; PR = 7·14; 95 % CI 3·79, 13·44 for women).
VAI has better predictive capacity in detecting unhealthy metabolic phenotype than conventional anthropometric indicators, regardless of nutritional status and sex.
Despite sperm mitochondrial relevance to the fertilization capacity, the processes involved in the production of ATP and functional dynamics of sperm mitochondria are not fully understood. One of these processes is the paradox involved between function and formation of reactive oxygen species performed by the organelle. Therefore, this review aimed to provide data on the role of sperm mitochondria in oxidative homeostasis and functionality as well the tools to assess sperm mitochondrial function.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
Evaluating the occurrence of diseases in aquatic mustelids is a priority in the conservation strategies for the Neotropical river otter and giant otter. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infection caused by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in both host species in northern Brazil. The collection of biological samples was carried out in the states of Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia, totalling 337 faecal samples of these species, which were processed using Kinyoun's technique for the identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution for visualization of Giardia sp. cysts. All samples were also tested by direct immunofluorescence. The frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. was higher than Giardia sp., in the two otter species. In the analysed samples co-infection by both protozoa was also found in 4.47% (14/313) of Neotropical river otter and 20.83% (5/24) of giant otter samples. Oocysts and cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, may remain infectious within specific environmental conditions for long periods of time. The current identification of Neotropical and giant otters as hosts of these protozoa increases the possibility of infection in this species and the transmission of those agents to other aquatic and terrestrial organisms, as well as to human populations. The findings of this study represent the first description of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. affecting Lontra longicaudis and Pteronura brasiliensis.