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Ifosfamide (IFX), an alkylating agent and isomer of cyclophosphamide, is used as a single agent or a component of multi-agent chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian, testicular, head and neck cancers, sarcomas and lymphomas. Encephalopathy is manifested by cerebellar ataxia, confusional state, complex visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs, seizures, and mutism.
We report two patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting with mutism and confusional state after IFX infusion. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as the cause of confusion was diagnosed on the basis of EEG pattern and the apparent improvement following intravenous administration of diazepam.
Electroencephalogram abnormalities during IFX treatment have been described but recordings are only available in six cases. In three of them, paroxysmal alterations warranted the diagnosis of NCSE; however, most cases of IFX encephalopathy might have associated NCSE.
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