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Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor with a median overall survival of 20.5 months. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Using a glioblastoma TCGA dataset, we have determined that high NSUN5 mRNA expression is strongly associated with poor survival in glioblastoma patients. NSUN5 is a ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cytosine methyltransferase. Human NSUN5 is located in chromosome 7 and is completely deleted in the Williams-Beurren syndrome, a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. However, RNA targets of NSUN5 in mammals and its role in cancer are unknown. The objective of this project is to determine whether elevated NSUN5 changes rRNA methylation pattern and thereby leads to pro-tumorigenic translational reprogramming and pro-tumorigenic phenotypes in glioblastoma. Western blotting showed that NSUN5 is expressed in 7 out of 9 established glioblastoma cell lines and in 8 out of 12 primary patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that NSUN5 methylates C3782 of human 28S rRNA in glioblastoma cells. Functionally, overexpression of NSUN5 increases, whereas NSUN5 knockout decreases global protein synthesis and sphere formation in glioblastoma cells. More importantly, mice bearing intracranial NSUN5-expressing U87 tumors survived for a shorter time than mice bearing tumors derived from U87 control cells. Our results suggest that NSUN5 methylates 28S rRNA and may enhance cancer stem cell phenotypes and tumor formation and/or progression in glioblastoma. Experiments are ongoing to determine whether NSUN5 promotes tumor formation and/or progression through translational reprogramming in glioblastoma. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for glioblastoma.
This paper presents the first major data release and survey description for the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme. ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme is an ongoing supernova spectroscopy campaign utilising the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The first and primary data release of this programme (AWSNAP-DR1) releases 357 spectra of 175 unique objects collected over 82 equivalent full nights of observing from 2012 July to 2015 August. These spectra have been made publicly available via the WISEREP supernova spectroscopy repository.
We analyse the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme sample of Type Ia supernova spectra, including measurements of narrow sodium absorption features afforded by the high spectral resolution of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument. In some cases, we were able to use the integral-field nature of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument to measure the rotation velocity of the SN host galaxy near the SN location in order to obtain precision sodium absorption velocities. We also present an extensive time series of SN 2012dn, including a near-nebular spectrum which both confirms its ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ status and enables measurement of the sub-solar host metallicity at the SN site.
We measured the spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b, a transiting hot Jupiter from the WASP survey. Using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during the transit event, we determined the sky-projected obliquity to be λ = −106+10−8○. This result indicates that the planet is in a nearly polar orbit.
At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R) and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the 2009, and 2011 winter seasons and part-way through the 2010 season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter-time dataset (2009) returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.
HRCAM (High Resolution CAMera) is a Canon 50D 15-megapixel digital SLR camera equipped with a Sigma 4.5 mm f/2.8 fish-eye lens. It was installed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau in January 2010 and photographs the sky every 15 minutes. Primarily functioning as a site-testing instrument, data obtained from HRCAM provide valuable statistics on cloud cover, sky transparency and the distribution and frequency of auroral activity. We present a first look at data from HRCAM during 2010, including an overview of how we intend to reduce the images. We also demonstrate the potential of stellar photometry by using linear combinations of the in-built Canon RGB filters to convert instrumental magnitudes into the photometric BVR bands.
Despite the absence of artificial light pollution at Antarctic plateau sites such as Dome A, other factors such as airglow, aurorae and extended periods of twilight have the potential to adversely affect optical observations. We present a statistical analysis of the airglow and aurorae at Dome A using spectroscopic data from Nigel, an optical/near-IR spectrometer operating in the 300–850 nm range. The median auroral contribution to the B, V and R photometric bands is found to be 22.9, 23.4 and 23.0 mag arcsec−2 respectively. We are also able to quantify the amount of annual dark time available as a function of wavelength; on average twilight ends when the Sun reaches a zenith distance of 102.6°.
Formaldehyde (H2CO) is an accurate probe of physical conditions in dense and low-temperature molecular clouds towards massive star formation regions, while 6.7 GHz methanol (CH3OH) masers provide ideal sites to probe the earliest stages of massive stellar formation. We present preliminary results of our investigation into the possible relationship between formaldehyde and methanol astrophysical masers with the view to expanding knowledge on massive star formation processes. Observations are done using the Nanshan 25m radio telescope of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatories, Urumqi, China. 127 Methanol sources (from the work of Green et al. 2010, Xu et al. 2003, Pestalozzi et al. 2005, and Xu et al. 2009) have been observed so far for 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorption lines, and H2CO signals have been detected in 86 of them, 31 of which are newly discovered. We obtained good correlation (0.85 correlation coefficient) between the velocities of the sources, and a poor correlation (−0.03 correlation coefficient) between their intensities, an indication that signals from the two lines originate from about the same region, but that the excitation mechanisms that drive them are likely different.
As a narrow gap, strongly correlated electron semiconductor, FeSb2 single crystals can exhibit a colossal thermopower1 (on the order of −40,000 μV/K or greater) and a relatively high lattice thermal conductivity2 (over 300 W/m-K) at temperatures around 10 K. In this work, a series of FeSb2 polycrystalline samples with different amounts of additional Indium were prepared by a quench-and-anneal method followed by a spark plasma sintering procedure. The x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis verified that the Sb/InSb nanoinclusions were formed in situ on the boundaries of coarse FeSb2 grains. The presence of such nanoinclusions and other as-formed multiscale microstructures can scatter phonons and thus dramatically reduce the corresponding lattice thermal conductivity. Furthermore, the electrical properties can be also improved because of the addition of high mobility carriers from the InSb nanoinclusions. Overall, FeSb2-based materials have shown some promising potential for possible thermoelectric cooling applications at cryogenic temperatures.
Systematic studies have been conducted on the electrical characteristics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The OTFTs have been characterized at low-operating voltages and deductions have been made regarding the current modulation mechanisms involved. Irreproducibility of transfer characteristics in these devices beyond a certain gate voltage, as well as a slow time-dependant component to drain current at certain gate voltages, indicates electrochemical changes occurring in the device during operation. It is hoped that this work can help to improve the understanding of OTFTs of this type and, in turn, their performance in the future.
We show that the complete list of regular excluded minors for the class of signed-graphic matroids is M*(G1),. . . , M*(G29), R15, R16. Here G1,. . . , G29 are the vertically 2-connected excluded minors for the class of projective-planar graphs and R15 and R16 are two regular matroids that we will define in the article.
The impact of device dimension and architecture on the device performance of an all–solution fabrication organic thin film transistor (OTFT) has been investigated. The saturation drain current is inversely proportional to the channel length, indicating that a characteristic of field–effect like transistor has been obtained. In contrast, the drain current is independent of the thickness of polyvinylphenol (PVP) dielectric layer and a large leakage current is observed at the gate electrode indicating that the device also shows electrochemical transistor characteristics. Although separate conductance measurements of a single poly(3–hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer and a P3HT/PVP layer reveal that the conductance is proportional to the thickness of the layer, the maximum achieved drain current in the fabricated OTFT is inversely proportional to the P3HT thickness. Using this data, an interface of P3HT/PVP or a maximum P3HT thickness for a working transistor of approximately 160 ± 16 nm can be extracted. The mechanism of operation of these devices is discussed.
Biological systems have evolved mechanisms that precisely control inorganic structures on both the micro- and nanoscale, operating at ambient pressures and temperatures. In both the calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate and silicon dioxide utilizing organisms, proteins and polysaccharides have been found to play integral roles in the organization of these biominerals[1–3]. The organic constituents generally have been thought to act as direct templates or modulators for the deposition of the particular mineral. We have explored the synthesis and structural control of silica by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia. Needles of amorphous silica comprise the skeletal system of this organism, representing 75% of the dry weight of the organism. These glassy needles, called spicules, are 2 mm in length and 30 μn in width[4,5]. We have characterized the structure, genetics and functions of the proteins that form an occluded axial filament within each silica spicule. Based on our discovery, a unique structure-directing catalytic mechanism exhibited by these protein filaments, and the structural determinants responsible for the catalytic activity, we have designed novel block copolypeptides that catalyze and spatially direct he condensation of silicon alkoxides to form organized silica structures ranging from transparent spheres to lath-like structures at ambient pressure, low temperature and neutral pH.
Nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been produced by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) using C60/Ar/H2 or CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas. Films grown with H2 concentration ≤ 20% are nanocrystalline, with atomically abrupt grain boundaries and without observable graphitic or amorphous carbon phases. The growth and morphology of these films are controlled via a high nucleation rate resulting from low hydrogen concentration in the plasma. Initial growth is in the form of diamond, which is the thermodynamic equilibrium phase for grains < 5 nm in diameter. Once formed, the diamond phase persists for grains up to at least 15–20 nm in diameter. The renucleation rate in the near-absence of atomic hydrogen is very high (∼1010 cm2sec−1), limiting the average grain size to a nearly constant value as the film thickness increases, although the average grain size increases as hydrogen is added to the plasma. For hydrogen concentrations less than ∼20%, the growth species is believed to be the carbon dimer, C2, rather than the CH3* growth species associated with diamond film growth at higher hydrogen concentrations. For very thin films grown from the C60 precursor, the threshold field (2 to ∼60 volts/micron) for cold cathode electron emission depends on the electrical conductivity and on the surface topography, which in turn depends on the hydrogen concentration in the plasma. A model of electron emission, based on quantum well effects at the grain boundaries is presented. This model predicts promotion of the electrons at the grain boundary to the conduction band of diamond for a grain boundary width ∼3–4 Å, a value within the range observed by TEM.
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