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This study extends the limited body of research exploring the association between psychological resources and performance under pressure. It was anticipated that participants’ general self-efficacy and resilience would positively influence skill acquisition rate more under high pressure, than low pressure. Eighty-one undergraduate students (Mage = 22.93; SD = 7.53; 50.6% female) participated in a learning task: to fly a flight simulator. The within-subjects variable was the participant's ability to steadily control the aircraft roll across six trials. Psychological pressure was manipulated between-subjects and general self-efficacy and resilience were measured moderator variables. Findings indicated that under high pressure, higher levels of general self-efficacy and perceived resilience predicted faster initial skill acquisition compared to those with lower levels of these resources. In contrast, in the low-pressure condition, the skill acquisition rate was the same irrespective of psychological resources. This research highlights the importance of psychological resources in pressured training contexts.
The Goethe Yearbook is a publication of the Goethe Society of North America, publishing original English-language contributions to the understanding of Goethe and other authors of the Goethezeit, while also welcoming contributions from scholars around the world. Goethe Yearbook 17 covers the full range of the era, from Karl Guthke's essay on the early Lessing to Peter Hoeyng's on Grillparzer. Notable is a special section, co-edited by Clark Muenzer and Karin Schutjer, that samples some of the exciting new work presented at the Goethe Society conference in November 2008: 200 years after the publication of Faust I, eight essays offer fresh views of this epic masterpiece, often through novel and surprising connections. Authors link for example Faust's final ascension and the circulation of weather, verse forms in the drama and the performance of national identity, the fate of Gretchen and the occult politics of Francis Bacon. Other papers explore epistemological structures and taxonomies at work in Goethe's prose, essays, and scientific writings.
Contributors: Frederick Amrine, Johannes Anderegg, Matthew Bell, Benjamin Bennett, Gerrit Bruening, Christian Clement, Pamela Currie, Ulrich Gaier, Karl Guthke, Stefan Hajduk, Peter Hoeyng, Clark Muenzer, Andrew Piper, Herb Rowland, Heather Sullivan, Chad Wellmon, Ellwood Wiggins, Markus Wilczek.
Daniel Purdy is Associate Professor of German at Pennsylvania State University. Book review editor Catriona MacLeod is Associate Professor of German at the University of Pennsylvania.
Split-beam positional estimates of fish detected in a river at close range often do not correspond to the actual position of the target. These inaccuracies create problems in determining whether a fish is moving upstream or downstream. We hypothesize that these positional estimates are degraded by two factors: size of target relative to beam diameter, and the complex scattering of the fish. These parameters create a near-field effect, within which the phase measurements of the returning echoes are corrupted. Examples of fish tracks from near and far range fish detected by a split-beam echo sounder are provided to illustrate these inaccuracies. Experimental data from tethered spheres and complex targets show increasing distortion with target complexity and proximity to the transducer.
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