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For close to a century, experiments using artificial languages (hereafter ALs) have been a staple of psycholinguistic research (Esper, 1925). Contemporary AL research has spanned numerous levels of linguistic inquiry, from phonetic learning through syntax (see Culbertson & Schuler, 2019). This approach has also been successfully applied across development, from infants and children (see Saffran & Kirkham, 2018) through older adults (e.g., Schwab, Schuler, Stillman, Newport, Howard & Howard, 2016), even spanning cross-species comparisons (e.g., Wilson, Slater, Kikuchi, Milne, Marslen-Wilson, Smith & Petkov, 2013). Given the proliferation of AL methods for investigating issues related to first language acquisition, it is not surprising that research on bilingualism has also embraced this approach. This special themed section comprises four concise review articles describing how AL research has informed questions related to bilingualism and second language learning. The articles also discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, as well as pointing to future directions for the field.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Studies of statistical learning have shaped our understanding of the processes involved in the early stages of language acquisition. Many of these advances were made using experimental paradigms with artificial languages that allow for careful manipulation of the statistical regularities in the input. This article summarizes how these paradigms have begun to inform bilingualism research. We focus on two complementary goals that have emerged from studies of statistical learning in bilinguals. The first is to identify whether bilinguals differ from monolinguals in how they track distributional regularities. The second is determining how learners are capable of tracking multiple inputs, which arguably is an important facet of becoming proficient in more than one language.
This article seeks to break the scholarly deadlock regarding attitudes toward war and bloodshed held by early Christian thinkers. I argue that, whereas previous studies have attempted to fit early Christian stances into one or another “unitary-ethic” framework, the historical-textual data can be best accounted for by positing that many early Christian writers held to a “dual-ethic” orientation. In the latter, certain actions would be viewed as forbidden for Christians but as legitimate for non-Christians in the Roman Empire. Moreover, this dual-ethic stance can be further illuminated by viewing it in connection with the portrayal in the Hebrew Bible of the relation between Levites and the other Israelite tribes. This framing enables us to gain a clearer understanding not only of writers like Origen and Tertullian, who upheld Christian nonviolence while simultaneously praising Roman imperial military activities, but also of writers such as Augustine, whose theological-ethical framework indicates a strong assumption of a dual-ethic stance in his patristic predecessors.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
Recent excavations in the historic centre of ancient Jerusalem have revealed evidence of an Abbasid (eighth- to tenth-century AD) marketplace. Refuse pits and cesspits have yielded an exceptionally well-preserved archaeobotanical assemblage—the first to be recovered from a Levantine marketplace, and the first in the region to be almost entirely preserved by mineralisation. Among several rare species identified is the earliest discovery of aubergine in the Levant. The assemblage includes staple and luxury food plants, medicinal herbs and plants used for industrial production, illuminating patterns of consumption, production, trade and the socioeconomic structure of Abbasid Jerusalem.
Studies of learner-learner interactions have reported varying degrees of pronunciation-focused discourse, ranging from 1% (Bowles, Toth, & Adams, 2014) to 40% (Bueno-Alastuey, 2013). Including first language (L1) background, modality, and task as variables, this study investigates the role of pronunciation in learner-learner interactions. Thirty English learners in same-L1 or different-L1 dyads were assigned to one of two modes (face-to-face or audio-only synchronous computer-mediated communication) and completed three tasks (picture differences, consensus, conversation). Interactions were coded for language-related episodes (LREs), with 14% focused on pronunciation. Segmental features comprised the majority of pronunciation LREs (90%). Pronunciation LREs were proportionally similar for same-L1 and different-L1 dyads, and communication modality yielded no difference in frequency of pronunciation focus. The consensus task, which included substantial linguistic input, yielded greater pronunciation focus, although the results did not achieve statistical significance. These results help clarify the role of pronunciation in learner-learner interactions and highlight the influence of task features.
Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.
Lessons from history on sustainability, collapse and resilience are the
ultimate goal of the Byzantine Bio-Archaeology Research Program of the Negev
(BYBAN) (Tepper et al. 2015). Addressing the unprecedented
flourishing and collapse of the Byzantine Negev agricultural settlements
(fourth–seventh centuries AD), the BYBAN project offers a unique and
original approach. It focuses on ancient middens and domestic contexts,
which provide an exceptional focus on the materiality of daily life.
Archaeobotanical research is central to this project because the copious
plant remains retrieved are a reflection of the region's agricultural
economy and its environmental sustainability. This approach will enable us
to answer important research questions about the Byzantine–Islamic
transition in the Negev: what were the major cash and subsistence crops?
Which were grown locally, and which, if any, were imported? How, if at all,
did the agricultural economy change during the Byzantine–Islamic transition?
Were there any major changes in climatic conditions, and, if so, can they be
implicated as a cause for agricultural collapse?
We have conducted a LABOCA 870 μm follow-up of ten massive lensing clusters of the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS, Egami et al. 2010) aiming at unveiling the yet hidden part of dusty star formation in the distant Universe. Among these clusters, A2744 and AS1063 are part of the Frontier Fields HST program. We also obtained 2 mm bolometer observations of A2744 and A370 with the GISMO array at the IRAM 30 m. We detected sources that are undetected with Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) implying either a very high redshift (z > 4) or a very low dust temperature (T<25 K). Their flux also imply a low intrinsic luminosity, LFIR < 1012L⊙. Some of them are extended and could correspond to multiple sources or to multiple images of a lensed source. Substructures in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect could also contribute this very red submm emission. An ALMA program is ongoing to unveil the nature of these sources.
In situ temperature-resolved Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) measurements were performed on thermo-active ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) – multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites 12 months following synthesis, and compared with spectra acquired shortly after synthesis to examine aging effects on non-covalent interactions. Room temperature spectra revealed no difference between unstrained and strained composites, suggesting relaxation. Further, energy shifts in π* C=C resonances indicated a change in π–π interactions between MWCNT walls and chemical dispersant, supported also by AFM phase imaging. Temperature-resolved NEXAFS analysis showed a lack of interaction between nanotubes and polymeric chains, suggesting the chemical dispersant unlatched from MWCNT walls. The extent of this effect is finally quantified through a comparative study of spectral trends.
The advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is mainly the direct visualization of the physico-chemical processes occurring during the polymer dissolution in real time. Nowadays, polymeric matrices as a means to control the release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are widely used. Hence it seems necessary to describe the polymer swelling and find the relationship between the type of used polymer and the dissolution profile of API.
The aim of our research was to monitor the dissolution kinetics of polymeric matrices with the different ratio of hydrophilic and lipophilic components utilizing MRI technology. For this purpose, six different matrices were prepared. For the dissolution experiments in MRI magnet, plastic flow through cell and tablet holder were designed and manufactured using a 3-D printer. The experiments were performed under specific conditions i.e. phosphate buffer saline pH 6 as a medium, medium temperature - 37°C, the flow rate of medium - 4 ml/min, the time of experiment - 8 hours. To improve the visibility of the erosion front, composite magnetic nanoparticles SiO2/FeOx as a MRI contrast agent were used. Each matrix was measured three times and the thickness of gel layer was evaluated in three different regions. Results from MRI experiments were compared to the results obtained by utilizing the texture analyzer, and then the relationship between polymer swelling and drug release was evaluated.
To sum up, MRI turned out to be a suitable imaging method for polymer swelling quantification. For the future measurements, the effect of different additives on the polymer swelling kinetics will be evaluated. The results from the whole research should lead to the database of matrix components and conditions of technological processes and their effects on the dissolution profile of API, thus simplifying the formulation of dosage forms with the desired drug release.
In this work, a systematic study on the factors that influence the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) solutions during remote radiofrequency (RF) heating, using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reported. A series of PNIPAM solutions with varying concentrations of Fe3O4 MNPs were prepared and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Preliminary studies showed the highest specific absorption rate (SAR) for 15 nm sized Fe3O4 MNPs, which monotonically decreased as the MNP sizes increased to 20-30 nm. In-situ transmission measurements were used to determine the LCST of PNIPAM under various aqueous concentrations with dispersed Fe3O4 MNPs. A systematic decrease in the LCST from 34 °C to 31 °C was observed as the concentration of PNIPAM was increased from 0.3 wt. % to 1.0 wt. %, keeping the concentration of Fe3O4 MNPs constant. On the other hand, varying the concentrations of the MNPs did not drastically affect the LCSTs of PNIPAM solutions. However, varying the ion concentration of the PNIPAM solutions by adding adjusted KOH pellets, showed a pronounced lowering of the LCST by 2-3 °C at all PNIPAM concentrations. The remote triggering of phase transitions in PNIPAM solutions by raising the temperature above the LCST using Fe3O4 MNPs as reported here is important in targeted drug-delivery applications using thermo-responsive polymers.
Ackermann et al. discuss the lack of evidence for vocal control in nonhuman primates. We suggest that nonhuman primates may be capable of achieving greater vocal control than previously supposed. In support of this assertion, we discuss new evidence that nonhuman primates are capable of modifying spectral features in their vocalizations.
In business, you don’t get what you deserve, you get what you negotiate.
Chester L. Karrass
You must never try to make all the money that’s in a deal. Let the other fellow make some money too, because if you have a reputation for always making all the money, you won’t have many deals.
J. Paul Getty
The fellow who says he’ll meet you halfway, usually thinks he’s standing on the dividing line.
Orlando A. Battista
Like it or not, you often will be negotiating something in life, and always will be negotiating something in an entrepreneurial pursuit. The negotiation could be direct or indirect, obvious or subtle, but as an entrepreneur, you always will be negotiating.
As just one example, my colleague Michael (first author of this text) shared with me a very important lesson in this regard from one of the angel investors that was his first major outside investor, Peter. Peter was seventy-one years old when he first became involved in my friend’s commercial fish farming company. He was the master at just about everything to do with starting a new business. Peter had left a Big 4 accounting firm (probably was the Big 8 back then) to launch his entrepreneurial career, when he had four children and a wife to support at the time. Among other deal points, Peter negotiated with Michael to purchase a 20% equity stake in his company in exchange for Peter’s cash investment. Michael violated a soon-to-be-learned rule, one that Peter was about to teach him the hard way. Peter had originally agreed to invest in the company for 18%, but later simply said that he’d feel a lot better if my friend could “round up” this figure to 20%. It wasn’t necessary, but it would be “nice.” Wanting to get the deal done, given that the parties were so close, and concerned he might otherwise disappoint or aggravate Peter, Michael said, “OK.” Michael didn’t ask what he would get for bumping up Peter’s equity stake or say something such as, “I’ll do that for you if you do XYZ in return.” Peter later told Michael that this was part of the negotiation, not simply a casual request.
People are definitely a company’s greatest asset. It doesn’t make any difference whether the product is cars or cosmetics. A company is only as good as the people it keeps.
Mary Kay Ash (1915–2001; U.S. Business Executive)
You’re making great progress. You’ve got a board, you are about to hire two key employees, and you are just about ready to start executing your company business strategy. But, you need a company structure to embody these attributes. In fact, you can’t even open a bank account without an Employer’s Identification Number (EIN). This is no simple decision. In particular, your board (typically made up of “older” types) will probably steer you in the direction of a conventional commercial corporation, aka C-Corp. Why, because they are familiar with it. People just about always think what they are familiar with is best, else why would they have been doing it all these years? I believe that a limited liability corporation (LLC) is probably your best bet at this point of your company history for a variety of reasons we discuss in this chapter. I’m not a lawyer, and this is where you should seek legal advice once you think you know what you want to do. In fact, never go to a lawyer and ask them an open-ended question such as “What should I do?” They will just about always guide you in the most conservative direction legally, and this may not be best for your company.
Types of Ownership Structures
Before you can decide on an ownership structure for your business, you should learn a little bit about how each structure works. As a good reference on deciding which ownership structure is most suitable for your business, read “Choosing the Best Ownership Structure for Your Business” (go to www.nolo.com/lawcenter).
I have no use for bodyguards, but I have very specific use for two highly trained certified public accountants.
It seems as if addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division should be fairly simple. It is, until you want to apply it to accounting and do your tax calculations! There are many ramifications resulting from your choice of corporate structure on how you end up paying taxes. For example, who in their right mind would choose to pay taxes twice on profits you make from your company? Well, if you choose a C-Corp for your company structure, that’s just what you’ll be doing! But sometimes a C-Corp is the best choice, and you might ask why. I think my accountant was probably the key professional with whom I interacted with during the early days of my start-up. I recommend seeking an accountant’s advice early, before you create your company structure.
At this point in the text, we’ve covered the basic steps of defining your business, developing a marketing strategy, and differentiating your business from the competition. In this chapter, we cover the creation and use of financial accounting statements in the typical business plan, including depreciation and taxation issues. We stress the importance of creating these financial statements from the top down versus the bottom up by basing the figures on details from the demand side of the equation, that is, sales and the costs of production.