To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We previously reported a putative detection of a radio galaxy at
, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The redshift of this source, GLEAM J0917–0012, was based on three weakly detected molecular emission lines observed with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA). In order to confirm this result, we conducted deep spectroscopic follow-up observations with ALMA and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The ALMA observations targeted the same CO lines previously reported in Band 3 (84–115 GHz) and the VLA targeted the CO(4-3) and [CI(1-0)] lines for an independent confirmation in Q-band (41 and 44 GHz). Neither observation detected any emission lines, removing support for our original interpretation. Adding publicly available optical data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and Herschel Space Observatory in the infrared, as well as
10 GHz polarisation and 162 MHz inter-planetary scintillation observations, we model the physical and observational characteristics of GLEAM J0917–0012 as a function of redshift. Comparing these predictions and observational relations to the data, we are able to constrain its nature and distance. We argue that if GLEAM J0917–0012 is at
then it has an extremely unusual nature, and that the more likely solution is that the source lies above
This paper explores the unique challenges, experiences and circumstances that enable and/or constrain non-Aboriginal teachers involved in teaching the Stage 6 Aboriginal Studies syllabus in the New South Wales (NSW) curriculum (2010). Drawing on the yarning inquiry methodology of Bessarab and Ng'andu, seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Studies teachers to open a powerful and insightful dialogue pertaining to the complexities and challenges for non-Aboriginal teachers teaching in the Aboriginal Studies space. Interview data identified key issues, strategies and themes relating to how non-Aboriginal teachers of Aboriginal Studies negotiate and operate in highly contested knowledge spaces, their roles and responsibilities as social justice educators and their capacity to enact substantive change within and beyond the Aboriginal Studies classroom. Nakata's cultural interface theory provides a useful tool for data analysis as Aboriginal Studies sits squarely at the centre of this interface. The findings provide valuable insights and practical recommendations for aspiring and current non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Studies teachers seeking to develop a clearer understanding of their, thus far under-researched, roles within the classroom, whilst opening an intriguing dialogue pertaining to the future of Aboriginal Studies in schools and its place within Australia's broader movement for conciliation.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The prevalence of kidney stone disease has increased significantly in the United States in the last 2 decades. While several studies have reported that disparities in access to and quality of medical care exist, there is a need for a more thorough investigation of factors that negatively impact patients seeking care specifically for kidney stone disease. We sought to examine whether kidney stone patients received different standard of care in the emergency department (ED) according to their race/ethnicity, gender, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status (SES), and insurance status. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a retrospective study of patients presenting to the ED at Montefiore Medical Center between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. Patients with a diagnosis of nephrolithiasis were identified using ICD-9/10 codes and electronic chart review was used to assess each patient’s ED course as well as to gather sociodemographic information. The primary outcomes of interest were administration of pain medication, prescription of alpha-1 antagonists to facilitate stone passage and whether or not patients received CT scan or ultrasound. Associations of these outcomes with age categories, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index category, SES and insurance status were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 1200 patients were included in this analysis of which 616 (51%) were women. A large proportion of patients were minorities (40% Hispanic and 15% non-Hispanic African-American), whereas 21% were Caucasian and 24% declined to report race/ethnicity. Patients between the ages of 55–64 and those older than 65 were less likely to receive pain medication compared to younger patients aged <35 years (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.27–0.86 and OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–1.00, respectively). Women were less likely than men to undergo any form of diagnostic imaging (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.35–0.76) including CT scan (OR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.35–0.72). Similarly, patients in the lowest quintile of SES received less imaging than patients in higher SES categories (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.27–0.90). Furthermore, African Americans (both genders) and women were less likely to be prescribed an alpha antagonist medication (e.g., tamsulosin) to facilitate stone passage compared with White patients (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.36–1.03) and men (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.49–0.92), respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We found that multiple disparities exist among patients presenting to the ED for nephrolithiasis. A more thorough investigation into the causes of these disparities is warranted to limit their impact on patient care.
The time domain is the emerging forefront of astronomical research with new facilities and instruments providing unprecedented amounts of data on the temporal behavior of astrophysical populations. Dealing with the size and complexity of this requires new techniques and methodologies. Quasars are an ideal work set for developing and applying these: they vary in a detectable but not easily quantifiable manner whose physical origins are poorly understood. In this paper, we will review how quasars are identified by their variability and how these techniques can be improved, what physical insights into their variability can be gained from studying extreme examples of variability, and what approaches can be taken to increase the number of quasars known. These will demonstrate how astroinformatics is essential to discovering and understanding this important population.
Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury that has been defined as a “trauma-induced alteration in mental status that may or may not involve loss of consciousness.” Terms such as getting a “ding” or getting your “bell rung” are sometimes used as colloquialisms for concussion, but inappropriately downplay the seriousness of the injury. It is estimated that between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions occur annually in the United States as a result of participation in sports or recreational activities. To date, there are no objective, biological markers for concussion; rather, the current diagnosis of concussion is dependent upon symptom reporting by the athlete. In the acute phase, concussions can result in a broad spectrum of symptoms that can be transient or last for days, weeks, or even months. Symptom prolongation is generally referred to as post-concussion syndrome.
I will discuss multi-wavelength AGN studies, with a focus on mid-IR and radio selected obscured AGN. Obscured AGN, which are robustly identified across the full sky by WISE, are the dominant AGN population. I will discuss several aspects of the mid-IR obscured AGN population, ranging from detailed studies of extreme sources, the so-called WISE ultraluminous ‘hot dust-obscured galaxy’ or ‘hot DOG’ sample, as well as more general studies comparing obscured and unobscured AGN identified in wide-area surveys.
Cognitive reserve (CR) has been proposed as a latent variable that can account for the frequent discrepancy between an individual's underlying level of brain pathology and their observed clinical outcome. A possible behavioral manifestation of CR is best strategy choice. Older adults have been shown to choose sub-optimal strategies for performing various tasks. The present study attempted to investigate whether greater levels of CR could predict greater strategy selection, particularly in older adults. A computational estimation task was administered to 20 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.7 ± 3.6; 20–31 years) and 18 healthy older adults (68.2 ± 4.5; 62–77 years) wherein participants needed to estimate the product of two two-digit numbers by using one of two strategies. The results revealed an effect of age group on strategy choice and supported the hypothesis that CR is associated with increased strategy selection abilities. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–4)
In this article we open the black box of governance in the new democracies by examining episodes where these governments are confronted with urgent threats that require swift and decisive state responses. This provides a unique insight into how political and administrative decision-making actually takes place. It enables us to analyse and evaluate the performance of the new institutions at times when it matters most. Specifically, we discuss how three of these new democracies, the Baltic states, have dealt with risks and crises in vital societal and political domains such as health and safety, public order, economic management and foreign policy. All belong to the core of the classic state functions.
The interpersonal self at issue in this volume is conceived as the result of direct perception of the relationship between the self and another person. It is derived from the ongoing, unreflected, coordinated, social interactions with another human being, which provide objective information that is directly available to the participants (see Neisser in this volume). Thus a major task for exploring the interpersonal self is to specify the perceived nature of the coordinated interaction with another, and how it differs from the interactions we have with inanimate things, ideas, our physical selves, our own mental phenomena (e.g., memories), or other phenomena.
Many specific aspects of the interpersonal situation might lead to the apperception of an interpersonal self, such as contingent responsivity of the partner, specialized gestures that are adapted or have evolved for human communication, sharing human time scales, intentionality, and the like. Other chapters of this volume cover these in some detail. I wish to focus on another aspect of the interpersonal situation – namely, the evoking, the sharing, and the mutual regulation of feelings. In fact, I shall argue that that these specifying aspects of the interpersonal self are perhaps most deeply at its core.