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Guided by principles from life-history theory, theories of adaptive calibration provide an overarching theoretical framework for understanding the developmental roots of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology. The current research provides evidence for robust associations between perceptions of childhood unpredictability, delay discounting (Studies 1a and 1b), and adult externalizing traits and behaviors (Study 2). Both associations were observed while controlling for perceptions of the harshness of childhood environments, as well as a range of demographic characteristics. The association with externalizing traits and behavior was observed over and above current mood and depressive symptoms. Study 2 also replicated a previously documented association between changes in maternal employment, residence, and cohabitation during childhood and externalizing behavior and, furthermore, suggested that this association was mediated by perceptions of unpredictability. These studies provided no evidence for links between perceived childhood unpredictability and basic forms of risk-taking (Studies 1a and 1c). This research adds to a growing body of work leveraging principles from life-history theory to demonstrate links between childhood experiences, impulsivity, and potentially debilitating forms of mental illness. This work also highlights the value of assessing people’s perceptions of their childhood environments.
The First Episode Rapid Early Intervention for Eating Disorders (FREED) service model is associated with significant reductions in wait times and improved clinical outcomes for emerging adults with recent-onset eating disorders. An understanding of how FREED is implemented is a necessary precondition to enable an attribution of these findings to key components of the model, namely the wait-time targets and care package.
This study evaluated fidelity to the FREED service model during the multicentre FREED-Up study.
Participants were 259 emerging adults (aged 16–25 years) with an eating disorder of <3 years duration, offered treatment through the FREED care pathway. Patient journey records documented patient care from screening to end of treatment. Adherence to wait-time targets (engagement call within 48 h, assessment within 2 weeks, treatment within 4 weeks) and care package, and differences in adherence across diagnosis and treatment group were examined.
There were significant increases (16–40%) in adherence to the wait-time targets following the introduction of FREED, irrespective of diagnosis. Receiving FREED under optimal conditions also increased adherence to the targets. Care package use differed by component and diagnosis. The most used care package activities were psychoeducation and dietary change. Attention to transitions was less well used.
This study provides an indication of adherence levels to key components of the FREED model. These adherence rates can tentatively be considered as clinically meaningful thresholds. Results highlight aspects of the model and its implementation that warrant future examination.
The interaction between various wave-like structures in screeching jets is considered via both experimental measurements and linear stability theory. Velocity snapshots of screeching jets are used to produce a reduced-order model of the screech cycle via proper orthogonal decomposition. Streamwise Fourier filtering is then applied to isolate the negative and positive wavenumber components, which for the waves of interest in this jet correspond to upstream- and downstream-travelling waves. A global stability analysis on an experimentally derived base flow is conducted, demonstrating a close match to the results obtained via experiment, indicating that the mechanisms considered here are well represented in a linear framework. In both the global stability analysis and the experimental decomposition, three distinct wave-like structures are evident; these waves are also solutions to the cylindrical vortex-sheet dispersion relation. One of the waves is the well-known downstream-travelling Kelvin–Helmholtz mode. Another is the upstream-travelling guided jet mode that has been a topic of recent discussion by a number of authors. The third component, with positive phase velocity, has not previously been identified in screeching jets. Via a local stability analysis, we provide evidence that this downstream-travelling wave is a duct-like mode similar to that recently identified in high-subsonic jets. We further demonstrate that both of the latter two waves are generated by the interaction between the Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepacket and the shock cells in the flow. Finally, we consider the periodic spatial modulation of the coherent velocity fluctuation evident in screeching jets, and show that this modulation can be at least partially explained by the superposition of the three wave-like structures, in addition to any possible modulation of the Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepacket by the shocks themselves.
The South Fork of Wright Valley contains one of the largest rock glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, stretching 7 km from the eastern boundary of the Labyrinth and terminating at Don Juan Pond (DJP). Here, we use results from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), qualitative field observations, soil leaching analyses and X-ray diffraction analyses to investigate rock glacier development. The absence of significant clean ice in GPR data, paired with observations of talus and interstitial ice influx from the valley walls, support rock glacier formation via talus accumulation. A quartz-dominated subsurface composition and discontinuous, well-developed desert pavements suggest initial rock glacier formation occurred before the late Quaternary. Major ion data from soil leaching analyses show higher salt concentrations in the rock glacier and talus samples that are close to hypersaline DJP. These observations suggest that DJP acts as a local salt source to the rock glacier, as well as the surrounding talus slopes that host water track systems that deliver solutes back into the lake, suggesting a local feedback system. Finally, the lack of lacustrine sedimentation on the rock glacier is inconsistent with the advance of a glacially dammed lake into South Fork during the Last Glacial Maximum.
We discuss the process of estimating the ecosystem service value (ESV) for provisioning of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to market, with a focus on the United States. NTFPs are harvested throughout the U.S. for numerous purposes, and those sold in market contribute significantly to household and local economies. While estimates of ESV can aid decision-making related to conservation and management, NTFPs have been generally neglected. We discuss challenges and approaches for prioritizing valuation, quantifying production, measuring costs and benefits, and finding data sources. Many NTFP markets are informal, and market players may have an interest in withholding information. Data about geographic and temporal distribution, production cost, quantity harvested, and price may therefore be limited. In two case studies, we explore the nuances of estimating ESV of forests for medicinal products.
Far-field three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy allows for quick measurement of the centers of mass and volumes of a large number of grains in a polycrystalline material, along with their crystal lattice orientations and internal stresses. However, the grain boundaries—and, therefore, individual grain shapes—are not observed directly. The present paper aims to overcome this shortcoming by reconstructing grain shapes based only on the incomplete morphological data described above. To this end, cross-entropy (CE) optimization is employed to find a Laguerre tessellation that minimizes the discrepancy between its centers of mass and cell sizes and those of the measured grain data. The proposed algorithm is highly parallel and is thus capable of handling many grains (>8,000). The validity and stability of the CE approach are verified on simulated and experimental datasets.
BACTOT, Quebec’s healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI) surveillance program has been operating since 2007. In this study, we evaluated the changes in HABSI rates across 10 years of BACTOT surveillance under a Bayesian framework.
A retrospective, cohort study of eligible hospitals having participated in BACTOT for at least 3 years, regardless of their entry date. Multilevel Poisson regressions were fitted independently for cases of HABSI, catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs), non–catheter-associated primary BSIs (NCA-BSIs), and BSIs secondary to urinary tract infections (BSI-UTIs) as the outcome and log of patient days as the offset. The log of the mean Poisson rate was decomposed as the sum of a surveillance year effect, period effect, and hospital effect. The main estimate of interest was the cohort-level rate in years 2–10 of surveillance relative to year 1.
Overall, 17,479 cases and 33,029,870 patient days were recorded for the cohort of 77 hospitals. The pooled 10-year HABSI rate was 5.20 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 5.12–5.28). For HABSI, CA-BSI, and BSI-UTI, there was no difference between the estimated posterior rates of years 2–10 compared to year 1. The posterior means of the NCA-BSI rate ratios increased from the seventh year until the tenth year, when the rate was 29% (95% confidence interval, 1%–89%) higher than the first year rate.
HABSI rates and those of the most frequent subtypes remained stable over the surveillance period. To achieve reductions in incidence, we recommend that more effort be expended in active interventions against HABSI alongside surveillance.
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the muscle mass to visceral fat (MVF) ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population of college students in Colombia and to propose cut-off points of this index for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 1464 young adults recruited from the FUPRECOL (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Jóvenes y Adultos Colombianos) study were categorised into four groups based on their MVF ratio. Muscle mass and visceral fat level of the participants were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cardiometabolic risk factors including lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were assessed. The prevalence of moderate to severe obesity, hypertension and the MetS was higher in subjects in quartile (Q)1 (lower MVF ratio) (P <0·001). ANCOVA revealed that the subjects in Q1 had higher cardiometabolic disturbances, including altered anthropometry, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after adjusting for age and sex compared with young adults in higher MVF ratio quartiles (P <0·001). Muscular mass and physical activity levels were significantly lower in subjects with a lower MVF ratio (P <0·001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that in men the best MVF ratio cut-off point for detecting the MetS was 18·0 (AUC 0·83, sensitivity 78 % and specificity 77 %) and for women, the MVF ratio cut-off point was 13·7 (AUC 0·85, sensitivity 76 % and specificity 87 %). A lower MVF ratio is associated with a higher risk cardiometabolic profile in early adulthood, supporting that the MVF ratio could be used as a complementary screening tool that may help clinicians identify young adults at high cardiometabolic risk.
I investigate how distraction affects the trading behavior of professional asset managers. Exploring detailed transaction-level data, I show that managers with a large fraction of portfolio stocks that have an earnings announcement are significantly less likely to trade in other stocks, suggesting that these announcements divert attention from trading decisions for other stocks. This distraction effect is more pronounced for nonpassive managers who engage in active stock selection choices. Finally, I identify three channels through which distraction hurts managers’ performance: Distracted managers trade less profitably, incur slightly higher transaction costs, and are less likely to close losing positions.
We present first results of a new heterodyne spectrometer dedicated to high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical importance. The spectrometer, based on a room-temperature heterodyne receiver, is sensitive to frequencies between 75 and 110 GHz with an instantaneous bandwidth of currently 2.5 GHz in a single sideband. The system performance, in particular the sensitivity and stability, is evaluated. Proof of concept of this spectrometer is demonstrated by recording the emission spectrum of methyl cyanide, CH3CN. Compared to state-of-the-art radio telescope receivers the instrument is less sensitive by about one order of magnitude. Nevertheless, the capability for absolute intensity measurements can be exploited in various experiments, in particular for the interpretation of the ever richer spectra in the ALMA era. The ease of operation at room-temperature allows for long time integration, the fast response time for integration in chirped pulse instruments or for recording time dependent signals. Future prospects as well as limitations of the receiver for the spectroscopy of complex organic molecules (COMs) are discussed.
This paper presents the first major data release and survey description for the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme. ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme is an ongoing supernova spectroscopy campaign utilising the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The first and primary data release of this programme (AWSNAP-DR1) releases 357 spectra of 175 unique objects collected over 82 equivalent full nights of observing from 2012 July to 2015 August. These spectra have been made publicly available via the WISEREP supernova spectroscopy repository.
We analyse the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme sample of Type Ia supernova spectra, including measurements of narrow sodium absorption features afforded by the high spectral resolution of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument. In some cases, we were able to use the integral-field nature of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument to measure the rotation velocity of the SN host galaxy near the SN location in order to obtain precision sodium absorption velocities. We also present an extensive time series of SN 2012dn, including a near-nebular spectrum which both confirms its ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ status and enables measurement of the sub-solar host metallicity at the SN site.