Features of the turbulent cascade are investigated for various datasets from three different turbulent flows, namely free jets as well as wake flows of a regular grid and a cylinder. The analysis is focused on the question as to whether fully developed turbulent flows show universal small-scale features. Two approaches are used to answer this question. First, two-point statistics, namely structure functions of longitudinal velocity increments, and, second, joint multiscale statistics of these velocity increments are analysed. The joint multiscale characterisation encompasses the whole cascade in one joint probability density function. On the basis of the datasets, evidence of the Markov property for the turbulent cascade is shown, which corresponds to a three-point closure that reduces the joint multiscale statistics to simple conditional probability density functions (cPDFs). The cPDFs are described by the Fokker–Planck equation in scale and its Kramers–Moyal coefficients (KMCs). The KMCs are obtained by a self-consistent optimisation procedure from the measured data and result in a Fokker–Planck equation for each dataset. Knowledge of these stochastic cascade equations enables one to make use of the concepts of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and thus to determine the entropy production along individual cascade trajectories. In addition to this new concept, it is shown that the local entropy production is nearly perfectly balanced for all datasets by the integral fluctuation theorem (IFT). Thus, the validity of the IFT can be taken as a new law of the turbulent cascade and at the same time independently confirms that the physics of the turbulent cascade is a memoryless Markov process in scale. The IFT is taken as a new tool to prove the optimal functional form of the Fokker–Planck equations and subsequently to investigate the question of universality of small-scale turbulence in the datasets. The results of our analysis show that the turbulent cascade contains universal and non-universal features. We identify small-scale intermittency as a universality breaking feature. We conclude that specific turbulent flows have their own particular multiscale cascades, in other words, their own stochastic fingerprints.