To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative protocols to improve oocyte selection, embryo activation and genomic reprogramming on in vitro development of porcine embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In Experiment 1, in vitro-matured oocytes were selected by exposure to a hyperosmotic sucrose solution prior to micromanipulation. In Experiment 2, an alternative chemical activation protocol using a zinc chelator as an adjuvant (ionomycin + N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) + N-6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP)) was compared with a standard protocol (ionomycin + 6-DMAP) for the activation of porcine oocytes or SCNT embryos. In Experiment 3, presumptive cloned zygotes were incubated after chemical activation in a histone deacetylase inhibitor (Scriptaid) for 15 h, with the evaluation of embryo yield and total cell number in day 7 blastocysts. In Experiment 1, cleavage rates tended to be higher in sucrose-treated oocytes than controls (123/199, 61.8% vs. 119/222, 53.6%, respectively); however, blastocyst rates were similar between groups. In Experiment 2, cleavage rates were higher in zygotes treated with TPEN than controls but no difference in blastocyst rates between groups occurred. For Experiment 3, the exposure to Scriptaid did not improve embryo development after cloning. Nevertheless, the total number of cells was higher in cloned zygotes treated with Scriptaid than SCNT controls. In conclusion, oocyte selection by sucrose as well as treatments with zinc chelator and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases did not significantly improve blastocyst yield in cloned and parthenotes. However, the histone deacetylases inhibitor produced a significant improvement in the blastocyst quality.
Early irritability predicts a broad spectrum of psychopathology spanning both internalizing and externalizing disorders, rather than any particular disorder or group of disorders (i.e. multifinality). Very few studies, however, have examined the developmental mechanisms by which it leads to such phenotypically diverse outcomes. We examined whether variation in the diurnal pattern of cortisol moderates developmental pathways between preschool irritability and the subsequent emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 9 years later.
When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Six years later, children collected saliva samples at wake-up and bedtime on three consecutive days. Diurnal cortisol patterns were modeled as latent difference scores between evening and morning samples. When children were approximately 12 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology.
Among children with higher levels of irritability at age 3, a steeper diurnal cortisol slope at age 9 predicted greater internalizing symptoms and irritability at age 12, whereas a blunted slope at age 9 predicted greater externalizing symptoms at age 12, adjusting for baseline and concurrent symptoms.
Our results suggest that variation in stress system functioning can predict and differentiate developmental trajectories of early irritability that are relatively more internalizing v. those in which externalizing symptoms dominate in pre-adolescence.
Recent European studies suggest that fathers’ leave-taking may contribute to parental relationship stability. Paternity leave-taking may signal a commitment by fathers toward a greater investment in family life, which may reduce the burden on mothers and strengthen parental relationships. This study uses longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to analyze the association between paternity leave-taking and relationship stability in the United States. Results indicate that paternity leave-taking, and taking relatively short leaves (i.e. two weeks or less) in particular, is associated with greater relationship stability. These findings increase our understanding of the potential benefits of paternity leave, and can inform policy decisions that aim to increase family stability.
The Social Context of Mental Health and Illness: Introduction to Part II
Kristi Williams, Associate Professor Sociology, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University,
Adrianne Frech, Assistant Professor, Sociology, The University of Akron,
Daniel L. Carlson, Assistant Professor, Sociology, Georgia State University
Williams, Frech, and Carlson examine the evidence for an effect of marital status on mental health, with a particular focus on the factors that identify who benefits from marriage, who suffers from marital dissolution, and under what circumstances. They evaluate three possible explanations for observed associations of marital status with mental health: (1) the marital resource model; (2) the marital crisis model; and (3) selection bias. They conclude that the best recent evidence suggests that, on average, entering marriage improves mental health and exiting marriage undermines mental health, at least in the short run. However, their central argument is that these average associations obscure a great deal of heterogeneity in the experience of marriage and in its consequences for mental health. The authors consider a range of individual, demographic, and relationship characteristics that are likely to moderate the effect of marriage and marital dissolution on mental health. These include gender, marital quality, age / life course, race/ethnicity, values and beliefs, and prior mental health. Students should discuss what other factors are likely to influence whether marriage and divorce are beneficial, neutral, or harmful for mental health. How might the impact of marriage and divorce on mental health change with the times, particularly as alternative family forms become more prevalent?
A general consensus exists among social scientists and the public at large that marriage provides substantial benefits to mental health. For many years, this conclusion was based on cross-sectional studies comparing the average mental health of the married to that of the unmarried at a single point in time. This research clearly showed that married individuals report lower average levels of depression, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorder, and higher levels of life satisfaction and subjective well-being (see Umberson & Williams, 1999 and Waite & Gallagher, 2000 for reviews) than the unmarried. The consistency and relatively large magnitude of observed differences, as well as their persistence across time and in numerous countries (Mastekaasa, 1994; Stack & Eshleman, 1998), led to the conclusion that marriage improves mental health for most people.
Research findings about marital status differences in mental health strongly resonate with cultural views about the individual and societal importance of marriage. Perhaps as a result, they are frequently heralded by the news media with headlines like “Stressed Out?
Social bonds, social integration, and primary group relations are central constructs in sociological theory and have been prime considerations within sociological analyses. This chapter begins with a description of prominent conceptualizations of social support. It discusses current knowledge of this topic, paying particular attention to the challenges of assessing both the mechanisms underlying the association between social support and mental health and the causal direction of this association. The chapter considers how the relationship between social support and well-being is importantly influenced by one's social location. The perception of being loved and wanted, valued and esteemed, and able to count on others must be a function of one's history of supportive and unsupportive experiences, with both early life and recent experiences representing major influences. Social support tends to matter for psychological distress and depression independent of stress level. However, it tends to matter more where stress exposure is relatively high.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.