The Palaeoproterozoic Birimian Supergroup of the West African Craton (WAC) consists of volcanic belts composed predominantly of basaltic and andesitic rocks and intervening sedimentary basins composed predominantly of wackes and argillites. Mafic metavolcanic rocks and granitoid-hosted enclaves from the Palaeoproterozoic Lawra Belt of Ghana were analysed for geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic data to constrain the geological evolution of the southeastern part of the WAC. The metavolcanic rocks display mainly tholeiitic signatures, whereas the enclaves show calc-alkaline signatures. The high SiO2 contents (48.6–68.9 wt%) of the enclaves are suggestive of their evolved character. The high Th/Yb values of the samples relative to that of the mantle array may indicate derivation of their respective magmas from subduction-modified source(s). The rocks show positive εNd values of +0.79 to +2.86 (metavolcanic rocks) and +0.79 to +1.82 (enclaves). These signatures and their Nd model ages (TDM2) of 2.31–2.47 Ga (metavolcanic rocks) and 2.39–2.47 Ga (enclaves) suggest they were probably derived from juvenile mantle-derived protoliths, with possible input of subducted pre-Birimian (Archean?) rocks in their source(s). Their positive Ba–Th and negative Nb–Ta, Zr–Hf and Ti anomalies may indicate their formation through subduction-related magmatism consistent with an arc setting. We propose that the metavolcanic rocks and enclaves from the Lawra Belt formed in a similar island-arc setting. We infer that the granitoids developed through variable degrees of mixing/mingling between basic magma and granitic melt during subduction, when blobs of basic to intermediate parental magma became trapped in the granitic magma to form the enclaves.