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The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
Immigration federalism scholarship has established that state and local government policies can make federally defined immigration status more or less consequential. Drawing primarily on focus groups and interviews with 184 undocumented students attending the University of California, we suggest that institutional policies work alongside state and local efforts to mediate the consequences of illegality for undocumented students. We find that the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, state-funded financial aid policies, and university support programs all facilitate the integration of undocumented students by increasing access to higher education and enabling fuller participation. Although federal policies contribute to persistent barriers to academic engagement and professional development, we show that universities can intervene to improve educational experiences and opportunities. Ultimately, we argue that university policies are a key site for intervening in immigration policy and constructing immigrant illegality.
Dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in addiction but few effective drugs have been developed to treat it. Recent research has highlighted dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, like aripiprazole, as a potential treatment for different types of substance dependence. In this study we investigate the use of both oral or long-acting injectable (LAI) aripiprazole in the treatment of dual disorders, specifically focusing on patients with psychotic disorder and comorbid substance use disorder.
Retrospective mirror-image study was conducted at an adult psychiatry inpatient unit from a tertiary care center (Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain). Patients included were those with a comorbid psychotic disorder and substance-related disorders (excluding tobacco and caffeine), according to DSM-5 criteria, who started aripiprazole in 2017. The number of psychiatric acute inpatient admissions and psychiatric emergency room visits, six months before and after aripiprazole initiation, were obtained from patients’ records. Sociodemographic factors, average length of stay, antipsychotic polypharmacy, type of substance and change on clinical global impression (GCI) scale during hospitalization were also obtained. Data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS, v21. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used in the analysis.
11 patients were included; 7 (63.6%) were males, the mean age was 40.37 (SD:13.23) years and the average length of stay was 11.27 (SD:7.53) days. LAI aripiprazole was prescribed in 7 (63.6%) patients (all of them receiving 400mg monthly) and oral aripiprazole was prescribed in 4 (36.4%) patients (mean daily dose= 16.25mg; SD:10.30). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was observed in 6 (54.5%) patients: 4 with quetiapine (mean daily dose=75mg; SD:61.23), 1 with clotiapine 20mg daily and 1 olanzapine 15mg daily. There were 6 (54.5%) polysubstance users and the substances used were cannabis (63.7%), alcohol (36.4%), stimulants (27.3%), opioids (9.1%), hallucinogens (9.1%) and sedative-hypnotics (9.1%).
The mean of inpatient admissions before and after aripiprazole initiation was 1.00 (SD:1.00) and 0.18 (SD:0.60) (p=0.047). The mean of emergency room visits before and after aripiprazole initiation was 1.64 (SD:1.85) and 0.36 (SD:0.67) (p=0.026). With respect to CGI scale, the severity of illness score was 5.09 (SD:0.94) and the global improvement score was 2.00 (SD:0.63) (p=0.004).
These results suggest that aripiprazole could be an effective treatment in psychotic patients with comorbid substance use disorders. However, the results should be taken with caution due to some limitations in our study: a small sample, the short period of time studied, the retrospective design and the inherent biases associated with this type of research. Preliminary investigations on the topic and the results of our study allow clinicians to be optimistic about the use of D2 receptor partial agonist in the treatment of dual disorders.
Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of mango and citrus in Mexico. Here, we report the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin strain MAAP1 on mortality and food consumption in A. ludens adults. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions at 26 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5% RH and 12:12 photoperiod. To assess pathogenicity and sublethal effects, we sprayed flies with 1 × 109 conidia/ml and 1 × 106 conidia/ml solutions, respectively. Food consumption was measured by providing known amounts of food through capillary tubes to caged flies. We found that M. anisopliae was highly virulent to A. ludens, causing 92.3 ± 0.62% mortality at day 13 post-exposure. Interestingly, food consumption reduced by 17% in flies exposed to the fungus. These results support the implementation of M. anisopliae within current strategies used for the integrated pest management of A. ludens.
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat–parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host–bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host–bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat–streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat–fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.
This work concerns Markov decision chains on a finite state space. The decision-maker has a constant and nonnull risk sensitivity coefficient, and the performance of a control policy is measured by two different indices, namely, the discounted and average criteria. Motivated by well-known results for the risk-neutral case, the problem of approximating the optimal risk-sensitive average cost in terms of the optimal risk-sensitive discounted value functions is addressed. Under suitable communication assumptions, it is shown that, as the discount factor increases to 1, appropriate normalizations of the optimal discounted value functions converge to the optimal average cost, and to the functional part of the solution of the risk-sensitive average cost optimality equation.
In this paper, we consider a corollary of the ACC conjecture for F-pure thresholds. Specifically, we show that the F-pure threshold (and more generally, the test ideals) associated to a polynomial with an isolated singularity are locally constant in the 𝔪-adic topology of the corresponding local ring. As a by-product of our methods, we also describe a simple algorithm for computing all of the F-jumping numbers and test ideals associated to an arbitrary polynomial over an F-finite field.
Nutrition during periconception and early development can modulate metabolic routes to prepare the offspring for adverse conditions through a process known as nutritional programming. In gilthead sea bream, replacement of fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) in broodstock diets improves growth in the 4-month-old offspring challenged with low-FO and low-fishmeal (FM) diets for 1 month. The present study further investigated the effects of broodstock feeding on the same offspring when they were 16 months old and were challenged for a second time with the low-FM and low-FO diet for 2 months. The results showed that replacement of parental moderate-FO feeding with LO, combined with juvenile feeding at 4 months old with low-FM and low-FO diets, significantly (P<0·05) improved offspring growth and feed utilisation of low-FM/FO diets even when they were 16 months old: that is, when they were on the verge of their first reproductive season. Liver fatty acid composition was significantly affected by broodstock or reminder diets as well as by their interaction. Moreover, the reduction of long-chain PUFA and increase in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in broodstock diets lead to a significant down-regulation of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (P<0·001) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 6 (P<0·01). Besides, fatty acid desaturase 2 values were positively correlated to hepatic levels of 18 : 4n-3, 18 : 3n-6, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and 22 : 5n-6. Thus, this study demonstrated the long-term nutritional programming of gilthead sea bream through broodstock feeding, the effect of feeding a ‘reminder’ diet during juvenile stages to improve utilisation of low-FM/FO diets and fish growth as well as the regulation of gene expression along the fish’s life-cycle.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their effects on Antarctic seabirds by using excreta as a non-destructive biomonitoring tool have received little consideration. Here we determine the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobencene (HCB), heptachlor, and endrin aldehyde in penguin excreta. Animal exposure to these environmental contaminants was determined through porphyrins in penguin droppings. Stool samples of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) were collected on two locations of the Antarctic Peninsula area: Base O´Higgins (Antarctic Peninsula) and Ardley Island (King George Island). Despite POPs have been banned more than three decades ago, the levels (ng g−1 ww) of PCBs (1.45-2.35), DDTs (1.33-1.76), HCB (0.51-1.70), endrin (0.48-0.71) and heptachlor (0.97-2.40) showed that these pollutants are still present in Antarctica. Porphyrin levels in excreta (4.6-6.7 nmol g−1 dw) were significantly correlated to POPs, indicating certain chemical exposure on penguin colonies that inhabit the Antarctic Peninsula area. The levels of heptachlor found in penguin guano may be affecting some biota in terrestrial sites next to nesting places. Further studies and better understanding of POPs impact on animal performance in Antarctic biota are recommended.
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of major importance for the livestock industry. It shows a remarkable ability to survive over long periods without feeding. However, the mechanisms used to endure long-term starvation are poorly understood. It is believed that autophagy, a process of intracellular protein degradation, may play a significant role to confront adverse environmental conditions. To advance our understanding of autophagy in R. microplus, in the present study we report the molecular characterization of three autophagy-related (ATG) genes, namely, RmATG3, RmATG4 and RmATG6, as well as their expression profiles in different developmental stages and organs of the parasite. The deduced amino acid sequences derived from the characterized gene sequences were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis. The testing produced significant alignments with respective ATG proteins from Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes scapularis ticks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that RmATG4 and RmATG6 transcripts were elevated in egg and ovary tissue, when compared with larva and midgut samples, while RmATG3 expression in midgut was 2-fold higher than in egg, larva and ovary samples.
In this article, we consider the conjectured relationship between
-purity and log canonicity for polynomials over
. In particular, we show that log canonicity corresponds to dense
-pure type for all polynomials whose supporting monomials satisfy a certain nondegeneracy condition. We also show that log canonicity corresponds to dense
-pure type for very general polynomials over
. Our methods rely on showing that the
-pure and log canonical thresholds agree for infinitely many primes, and we accomplish this by comparing these thresholds with the thresholds associated to their monomial term ideals.
Integration between phylogenetic systematics and paleontological data has proved to be an effective method for identifying periods that lack fossil evidence in the evolutionary history of clades. In this study we aim to analyze whether there is any correlation between various ecomorphological variables and the duration of these underrepresented portions of lineages, which we call ghost lineages for simplicity, in ruminants. Analyses within phylogenetic (Generalized Estimating Equations) and non-phylogenetic (ANOVAs and Pearson correlations) frameworks were performed on the whole phylogeny of this suborder of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia). This is the first time ghost lineages are focused in this way. To test the robustness of our data, we compared the magnitude of ghost lineages among different continents and among phylogenies pruned at different ages (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 Ma). Differences in mean ghost lineage were not significantly related to either geographic or temporal factors. Our results indicate that the proportion of the known fossil record in ruminants appears to be influenced by the preservation potential of the bone remains in different environments. Furthermore, large geographical ranges of species increase the likelihood of preservation.
We present an innovative soft X-ray polarimeter and spectrometer SOLPEX. The instrument is to be mounted aboard the ISS within the Russian science complex KORTES. The measurements to be made by SOLPEX are expected to be of unprecedented quality in terms of sensitivity to detect the soft-X-ray polarization of solar emission emanating from active regions and flares in particular. Simultaneous measurements of the polarization degree and the other characteristics (eg. evolution of the spectra) constitute the last, rather unexplored area of solar X-ray spectroscopy providing substantial diagnostic potential. Second important science task to be addressed are the measurements of Doppler shifts in selected X-ray spectral emission lines formed in hot flaring sources. The novel-type Dopplerometer (flat Bragg crystal drum unit) is planned to be a part of SOLPEX and will allow to measure line Doppler shifts in absolute terms with unprecedented time resolution (fraction of a second) during the impulsive flare phases. We shall present some details of the SOLPEX instrument and discuss observing sequences in a view of science objectives to be reached.
We present the innovative soft X-ray spectro-polarimeter, SolpeX. This instrument consists of three functionally independent blocks. They are to be included into the Russian instrument KORTES, to be mounted onboard the ISS. The three SolpeX units are: a simple pin-hole X-ray spectral imager, a polarimeter, and a fast-rotating drum multiple-flat-crystal Bragg spectrometer. Such a combination of measuring blocks will offer a new opportunity to reliably measure possible X-ray polarization and spectra of solar flares, in particular during the impulsive phase. Polarized Bremsstrahlung and line emission due to the presence of directed particle beams will be detected, and measurements of the velocities of evaporated hot plasma will be made. In this paper we discuss the details of the construction of the SolpeX units. The delivery of KORTES with SolpeX to the ISS is expected to happen in 2017/2018.