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The most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressant medication (ADM). Results are reported on frequency of ADM use, reasons for use, and perceived effectiveness of use in general population surveys across 20 countries.
Face-to-face interviews with community samples totaling n = 49 919 respondents in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys asked about ADM use anytime in the prior 12 months in conjunction with validated fully structured diagnostic interviews. Treatment questions were administered independently of diagnoses and asked of all respondents.
3.1% of respondents reported ADM use within the past 12 months. In high-income countries (HICs), depression (49.2%) and anxiety (36.4%) were the most common reasons for use. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), depression (38.4%) and sleep problems (31.9%) were the most common reasons for use. Prevalence of use was 2–4 times as high in HICs as LMICs across all examined diagnoses. Newer ADMs were proportionally used more often in HICs than LMICs. Across all conditions, ADMs were reported as very effective by 58.8% of users and somewhat effective by an additional 28.3% of users, with both proportions higher in LMICs than HICs. Neither ADM class nor reason for use was a significant predictor of perceived effectiveness.
ADMs are in widespread use and for a variety of conditions including but going beyond depression and anxiety. In a general population sample from multiple LMICs and HICs, ADMs were widely perceived to be either very or somewhat effective by the people who use them.
Trapping experiments have been performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the performance of AgX sorbent media in capturing volatile iodine during the oxidation of irradiated oxide fuel. The demonstration of iodine release and capture from the used fuel has been accomplished with laboratory-scale equipment in a hot cell environment. Iodine loadings as high as 6 ug/g media have been achieved via chemical adsorption with filter efficiencies in excess of 90%. In addition to iodine, significant quantities of tritium have also been collected on the AgX filter media. Filter media loaded with radioactive iodine has been sequestered in a tin matrix by hot isostatic pressing at 200°C. The placement and encapsulation of the sorbent media was examined by neutron radiography, thus confirming the sequestration of radioactive iodine.
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