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Contextually appropriate interventions delivered by primary maternal care providers (PMCPs) might be effective in reducing the treatment gap for perinatal depression.
To compare high-intensity treatment (HIT) with low-intensity treatment (LIT) for perinatal depression.
Cluster randomised clinical trial, conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria between 18 June 2013 and 11 December 2015 in 29 maternal care clinics allocated by computed-generated random sequence (15 HIT; 14 LIT). Interventions were delivered individually to antenatal women with DSM-IV (1994) major depression by trained PMCPs. LIT consisted of the basic psychosocial treatment specifications in the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme – Intervention Guide. HIT comprised LIT plus eight weekly problem-solving therapy sessions with possible additional sessions determined by scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The primary outcome was remission of depression at 6 months postpartum (EPDS < 6).
There were 686 participants; 452 and 234 in HIT and LIT arms, respectively, with both groups similar at baseline. Follow-up assessments, completed on 85%, showed remission rates of 70% with HIT and 66% with LIT: risk difference 4% (95% CI −4.1%, 12.0%), adjusted odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 0.73, 1.72). HIT was more effective for severe depression (odds ratio 2.29; 95% CI 1.01, 5.20; P = 0.047) and resulted in a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Infant outcomes, cost-effectiveness and adverse events were similar.
Except among severely depressed perinatal women, we found no strong evidence to recommend high-intensity in preference to low-intensity psychological intervention in routine primary maternal care.
To develop a cationic UV curable, tough fouling-release coating for marine vessels, a difunctional oxetane monomer was used to copolymerize with the epoxy-siloxane oligomer at loading levels from 10% to 40% wt.. The resulting coatings showed enhanced solvent resistance, impact resistance and modulus, while remained hydrophobic before and after immersion in artificial sea water. In marine microorganism bioassay, these oxetane toughened coatings showed no leachate toxicity and the coating surfaces were non-toxic to biofilm growth. The fouling removal performance for these coatings was found to be microorganism dependent. Live barnacle reattachment assay showed that the toughened coatings had a removal force comparable to the reference silicone coatings Dow Corning T2 and 3140.
A combinatorial workflow for developing organic surface coatings has been developed. The workflow is uniquely designed to prepare and evaluate marine coatings that prevent biofouling on the hulls of ships. A critical component of the workflow is the high throughput screening of settlement and ease of removal of marine organisms from coating surfaces. Methods have been developed to directly and indirectly quantify marine bacterial biofilm growth and retention. Correlations have been developed between these high throughput bioassays and results from ocean testing.
Little is known about the availability and uptake of health and welfare services by women with postnatal depression in different countries.
Within the context of a cross cultural research study, to develop and test methods for undertaking quantitative health services research in postnatal depression.
Interviews with service planners and the collation of key health indicators were used to obtain a profile of service avail ability and provision. A service use questionnaire was developed and administered to a pilot sample in a number of European study centres.
Marked differences in service access and use were observed between the centres, including postnatal nursing care and contacts with primary care services. Rates of use of specialist services were generally low. Common barriers to access to care included perceived service quality and responsiveness. On the basis of the pilot work, a postnatal depression version of the Service Receipt Inventory was revised and finalised.
This preliminary study demonstrated the methodological feasibility of describing and quantifying service use, highlighted the varied and often limited use of care in this population, and indicated the need for an improved understanding of the resource needs and implications of postnatal depression.
Child and adolescent inpatient care is a highly specialised service, ideally requiring planning at a national level, but there are no routine data collections specifically for these services.
To estimate unit costs for child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient units and to analyse the variations in costs between units.
Data collection alongside a national survey with cost estimations guided by principles drawn from economic theory. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are employed to identify cost influences.
Fifty-eight units could provide sufficient data to allow calculation of the cost per in-patient day; mean=$197 (s.d.=71.6; 1999–2000 prices). The management sector, type of provision, number of rooms, capacity and location explained nearly half of the cost variation.
Child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient units are an expensive resource, with personnel absorbing two-thirds of the total costs. Costs per in-patient day vary fourfold and the exploration of cost variations can inform commissioning strategies.
Despite the burden of depression, there remain few data on its economic consequences in an international context.
To explore the relationship between depression status (with and without medical comorbidity), work loss and health care costs, using cross-sectional data from a multi-national study of depression in primarycare.
Primarycare attendees were screened for depression. Those meeting eligibility criteria were categorised according to DSM – IV criteria for major depressive disorder and comorbid status. Unit costs were attached to self-reported days absent from work and uptake of health care services.
Medical comorbidity was associated with a 17–46% increase in health care costs in five of the six sites, but a clear positive association between costs and clinical depression status was identified in only one site.
The economic consequences of depression are influenced to a greater (and considerable) extent by the presence of medical comorbidity than by symptom severity alone.
The York resource allocation formula includes a calculation of the amount needed to purchase mental health services equitably in each health authority in England. However, the amount which is actually spent on services is at the discretion of the authority.
To compare expenditure on mental health services with allocation, and test the hypothesis that differences between them are to the disadvantage of services in deprived areas.
A comparison of routine expenditure and allocation data, and linear regression modelling of the ratio of expenditure to allocation.
The ratio of expenditure to allocation varies widely. Relative underspending occurs more frequently in deprived areas, although not in the four inner-London health authorities.
The intentions of the York formula are not achieved in practice. The implications of the formula for mental health should be made explicit to health authorities, and shortfalls in mental health expenditure relative to allocation should be justified at a local level.
Research on the comparison of mental health services has identified the need for internationally standardised and reliable measurements.
To describe the strategies adopted in the European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs (EPSILON) Study for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of five European versions of the instruments.
A protocol was developed for translation of the outcome scales, describing each step in the translation procedure. Disputed items were discussed in focus groups, which faced seven tasks: a list of topics to be discussed; choosing where the group should meet; composition of participants; conducting the group; data collection; data completion afterwards; reporting results.
Modifications made to instruments were: changes in the instrument structure, contents and concepts; adjustments to the instrument structure; and modifications to the instrument manual.
Use of focus groups is an adequate method to apply if concepts, constructs and translation issues are to be addressed; otherwise, less time-consuming methods should be considered.
A randomised controlled trial of cognitive — behavioural therapy (CBT) for people with medication-resistant psychosis showed improvements in overall symptomatology after nine months of treatment; good outcome was strongly predicted by a measure of cognitive flexibility concerning delusions. The present paper presents a follow-up evaluation 18 months after baseline.
Forty-seven (78% of original n=60) participants were available for follow-up at 18 months, and were reassessed on all the original outcome measures (see Part I). An economic evaluation was also completed.
Those in the CBT treatment group showed a significant and continuing improvement in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores, whereas the control group did not change from baseline. Delusional distress and the frequency of hallucinations were also significantly reduced in the CBT group. The costs of CB Tappear to have been offset by reductions in service utilisation and associated costs during follow-up.
Improvement in overall symptoms was maintained in the CBT group 18 months after baseline and nine months after intensive therapy was completed. CBT may be a specific and cost-effective intervention in medication-resistant psychosis.
The NHS is no longer a virtual monopoly provider of mental health residential care. This makes it difficult to assess the volume, range and adequacy of local provision.
Local data collectors used standard instruments to collect detailed information about 368 facilities (with 1951 residents) providing mental health residential care in eight districts. Because local definitions were inconsistent, facilities were reclassified on the basis of facility size and extent of day and night cover. The eight categories of accommodation are compared on levels of staffing, staff qualifications and the characteristics of their residents.
There was a nearly threefold variation between districts in the total number of residential places available per unit of population, and even greater variation in the number of places with 24-hour waking cover. Most residents have long-term, severe mental illness and severe impairment. Long-stay wards accommodate people who pose greater risk of violence than do the two types of non-hospital facility with 24-hour waking cover (P<0.001). The former also employ a much greater proportion of staff with formal care qualifications and, in particular, nursing qualifications than the latter (49% v. 15%, P < 0.001).
It is suggested that one consequence of the diversification in provision of mental health residential accommodation has been a relative reduction in the proportion of provision available to the most severely disabled. This might apply particularly to those who pose a risk of acting violently.
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