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Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a tentative correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. We examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of a surfactant solution of dilute concentration, where the associated Marangoni and surface viscosity effects are modelled via the Boussinesq–Scriven formulation. The resulting integro-differential initial value problem is solved analytically, and surface viscosity is found to contribute an overall damping effect to the amplitude of the capillary wave with varying degree depending on the length scale of the system. Numerically, we find that the critical damping wavelength increases for increasing surface concentration but the rate of increase remains different for both the surface viscosity and the Marangoni effect.
A decision-making body may utilize a wide variety of different strategies when required to make a collective decision. In principle, we would like to use the most effective decision rule, that is, the rule yielding the highest probability of making the correct decision. However, in reality we often have to choose a decision rule out of some restricted family of rules. Therefore, it is important to be able to rank various families of rules. In this paper we consider three classes of decision rules: (i) balanced expert rules, (ii) the so-called single expert rules, and (iii) restricted majority rules. For the first two classes, we show that, as we deviate from the best rule in the family, the effectiveness of the decision rule decreases. For the last class, we obtain a very different phenomenon: any inner ranking is possible.
We deal with the problem of seating an airplane's passengers optimally, namely in the fastest way. Under several simplifying assumptions, whereby the passengers are infinitely thin and react within a constant time to boarding announcements, we are able to rewrite the asymptotic problem as a calculus of variations problem with constraints. This problem is solved in turn using elementary methods. While the optimal policy is not unique, we identify a rigid discrete structure which is common to all solutions. We also compare the (nontrivial) optimal solutions we find with some simple boarding policies, one of which is shown to be near-optimal.
We study the uncertain dichotomous choice model. In this model, a group of expert decision makers is required to select one of two alternatives. The applications of this model are relevant to a wide variety of areas. A decision rule translates the individual opinions of the members into a group decision, and is optimal if it maximizes the probability of the group making a correct choice. In this paper, we assume the correctness probabilities of the experts to be independent random variables selected from some given distribution. Moreover, the ranking of the members in the group is (at least partly) known. Thus, one can follow rules based on this ranking. The extremes are the expert rule and the majority rule. The probabilities of the two extreme rules being optimal were compared in a series of early papers, for a variety of distributions. In most cases, the asymptotic behaviours of the probabilities of the two extreme rules followed the same patterns. Do these patterns hold in general? If not, what are the ranges of possible asymptotic behaviours of the probabilities of the two extreme rules being optimal? In this paper, we provide satisfactory answers to these questions.
Sapir (1998) calculated the probabilities of the expert rule and of the simple majority rule being optimal under the assumption of exponentially distributed logarithmic expertise levels. Here we find the analogous probabilities for the family of restricted majority rules, including the above two extreme rules as special cases, and the family of balanced expert rules. We compare the two families, the rules within each family, and all rules of the two families with the extreme rules.
An indefinite binary quadratic form ƒ gives rise to a certain function M on the torus. The properties of M, especially those related to its maximum – the so-called inhomogeneous minimum of ƒ – are the subject of numerous papers. Here we continue this study, putting more emphasis on the general behaviour of M.
Let P be an IP-set of integers namely for a certain sequence The main questions studied here are : (1) Under what conditions on (an) is Pα dense modulo 1 for every irrational α? (2) Under what conditions on (an) is Pα (considered as a sequence ordered in a way to be subsequently defined) uniformly distributed modulo 1 for every irrational α?
Let σ be an ergodic endomorphism of the r–dimensional torus and Π a semigroup generated by two affine transformations lying above σ. We show that the flow defined by Π admits minimal sets of positive Hausdorff dimension and we give necessary and sufficient conditions for this flow to be minimal.
Let Σ be a commutative semigroup of continuous endomorphisms of the r-dimensional torus. Generalizing a result of Furstenberg dealing with the circle group, necessary and sufficient conditions are given here for Σ to possess the following property: Any Σ-minimal set consists of torsion elements. Semigroups not having this property are shown to admit minimal sets of positive Hausdorff dimension.
The notions of ergodicity, strong mixing and weak mixing are defined and studied for arbitrary sequences of measure-preserving transformations of a probability space. Several results, notably ones connected with mean ergodic theorems, are generalized from the case of the sequence of all powers of a single transformation to this case. The conditions for ergodicity, strong mixing and weak mixing of sequences of affine transformations of compact groups are investigated.
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