To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Terrorist attacks have increased globally since the late 1990s with clear evidence of psychological distress across both adults and children and young people (CYP). After the Manchester Arena terrorist attack, the Resilience Hub was established to identify people in need of psychological and psychosocial support.
To examine the severity of symptoms and impact of the programme.
The hub offers outreach, screening, clinical telephone triage and facilitation to access evidenced treatments. People were screened for trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and functioning who registered at 3, 6 and 9 months post-incident. Baseline scores were compared between screening groups (first screen at 3, 6 or 9 months) in each cohort (adult, CYP), and within groups to compare scores at 9 months.
There were significant differences in adults' baseline scores across screening groups on trauma, depression, anxiety and functioning. There were significant differences in the baseline scores of CYP across screening groups on trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on all measures for adults in the 3-month screening group, and only depression and functioning measures for adults in the 6-month screening group. Data about CYP in the 3-month screening group, demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on trauma, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety.
These findings suggest people who register earlier are less symptomatic and demonstrate greater improvement across a range of psychological measures. Further longitudinal research is necessary to understand changes over time.
To explore associations between dietary quality and access to different types of food outlets around both home and school in primary school-aged children.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Children (n 1173) in the Southampton Women’s Survey underwent dietary assessment at age 6 years by FFQ and a standardised diet quality score was calculated. An activity space around each child’s home and school was created using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid to derive four food environment measures: counts of supermarkets, healthy specialty stores (e.g. greengrocers), fast-food outlets and total number of outlets, and a relative measure representing healthy outlets (supermarkets and specialty stores) as a proportion of total retail and fast-food outlets.
In univariate multilevel linear regression analyses, better diet score was associated with exposure to greater number of healthy specialty stores (β=0·025 sd/store: 95 % CI 0·007, 0·044) and greater exposure to healthy outlets relative to all outlets in children’s activity spaces (β=0·068 sd/10 % increase in healthy outlets as a proportion of total outlets, 95 % CI 0·018, 0·117). After adjustment for mothers’ educational qualification and level of home neighbourhood deprivation, the relationship between diet and healthy specialty stores remained robust (P=0·002) while the relationship with the relative measure weakened (P=0·095). Greater exposure to supermarkets and fast-food outlets was associated with better diet only in the adjusted models (P=0·017 and P=0·014, respectively).
The results strengthen the argument for local authorities to increase the number of healthy food outlets to which young children are exposed.
This special issue advances the first comprehensive account of “oil culture,” the broad field of cultural representations and symbolic forms that have taken shape around the fugacious material of oil in the 150 years since the inception of the US petroleum industry. Exploring the cultural life of oil from a variety of methodological perspectives, the essays in this special issue seek to elucidate the complex role that imaginative representations have played in establishing and contesting oil's status as the primary commodity underpinning modern economic expansion and a fundamental ontological construct shaping social and political life in the United States and beyond. By addressing the rise of oil as a cultural problem, this issue aims to fill a significant gap in oil scholarship and to intervene in what has become an epochal and highly charged moment in the history of petro-capitalism.
The global regime for climate change consists of two agreements, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, neither of which adequately addresses the real challenge. Certainly, neither agreement has had much effect so far. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased every year since the UNFCCC was negotiated in 1992. The trend did not change after the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997. Although Kyoto is still some way from being implemented, its short comings are already apparent. A new approach is needed.
In this paper I sketch out an alternative treaty system – a new “architecture,” in the language of this book. Taking the objective to be sustainable development that reduces climate change risk, this new system consists of four parts: first, protocols that promote research and development (R & D) into new energy, air capture, and geoengineering technologies; second, protocols that encourage the development and diffusion of new mitigation technologies emerging from this R & D; third, cooperation in financing investments that will make the poorest countries less vulnerable to climate change (an example being investments that reduce malaria prevalence or that improve malaria treatment); and, fourth, agreements on the deployment of geoengineering technologies, particularly in response to the first warning signs of abrupt or catastrophic climate change.
This is a fundamentally different approach, and to understand the reason for it, it is best to begin by outlining the limitations of the current treaty arrangement.
Several studies document an excess of psychiatric symptoms among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. However, little is known about the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in those who were deployed to that conflict.
To compare the 12-month prevalence and associated risk factors for DSM Axis I psychiatric diagnoses between random samples of Gulf War-deployed veterans and veterans of the same era notdeployed to the Persian Gulf (era veterans).
Interview data from 967 Gulf War veterans and 784 era veterans were examined to determine current health status, medical conditions, symptoms and Axis I psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression models evaluated risk factors for psychiatric disorder.
Gulf War veterans had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, with twice the prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression. Lower rank, female gender and divorced or single marital status were significant independent predictors of psychiatric disorder.
Deployment to the Gulf War is associated with a range of mental health outcomes more than 10 years after deployment.
An explosive detonation in snow produces high intensity shock waves that are rapidly attenuated by momentum spreading as the snow is compacted. Our experimental measurements and numerical calculations indicate that the maximum shock-wave attenuation in seasonal snow (250 kgm−3) is proportional to between x−1.6 and x−3 for plane waves and x−3 for spherical waves (x is the propagation distance). Outside the region of shock-compacted snow or in air over snow, stresses are transmitted as acoustic/seismic waves. Attenuation of these waves depends on snow permeability and the effective modulus of the ice frame and is proportional to about x−0.7 for plane waves in seasonal snow and to about x−1 for spherical waves in air over seasonal snow. Increasing the scaled detonation height of an explosive up to 2mkgf−1/3 above a snow cover increases the far field (scaled distances greater than about 8m kgf−1/3 snow surface pressures. Scaled detonation heights greater than about 2mkgf−1/3 have little additional effect.
The première of It Is Never Too Late to Mend at the Princess's Theatre on 4 October 1865 marked the appropriately tumultuous return of Charles Reade to the London stage after an absence of nine years. That night, one of the most memorable disturbances in the nineteenth-century theatre occurred when the drama critics in attendance, led by Frederick Guest Tomlins of the Morning Advertiser, demanded that the play be halted because of its offensive subject matter and one particularly shocking scene. The dispute became a cause celebre among critics, dramatists, and the general public and was recalled (with varying degrees of accuracy) years later by its participants, witnesses, and other interested parties.
Many ethical theories, including in particular consequentialist moral the ories, require comparisons of the amount of good possessed or received by different people. In the case of some goods, such as monetary income, wealth, education, or health, such comparisons are relatively unproblematic. Even in the case of such goods there may be serious empirical measurement problems, but there appear to be no difficulties in principle. Thus Cooter and Rappoport (1984) maintained that there was no serious difficulty of making interpersonal utility comparisons for an earlier generation of economists who regarded utility as an index of “material welfare.”
Based upon recent mechanical property tests a NiAl-AlN composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the NiAl-AlN composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the NiAl-AlN composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the NiAl-AlN was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of AlN particles within the alumina scale.
In the honor roll of nineteenth-century theatrical producers of Shakespeare, the name Frederick Balsir Chatterton has never been entered. Even in his own time he was often considered more of an entrepreneur or entertainer than a serious advocate of Shakespeare. Since then he has either been ignored or ridiculed by critics and historians, the lone exception being Odell, who gave Chatterton's productions their only serious attention. What historians remember instead is Chatterton's infamous maxim— “Shakespeare spelt ruin and Byron bankruptcy”—a saying he did not invent and did not totally believe.
Playgoers needed no special incentive to attend the opening of T. W. Robertson's Caste at the Broadway Theatre in New York on 5 August 1867. The same author's Ours had been the hit of the previous New York season, and the enthusiastic reception of his latest domestic comedy in London heralded its American appearance. A few days before the première, however, Broadway manager Barney Williams received an unwelcome piece of extra publicity: a temporary injunction against the forthcoming production had been granted by the New York Supreme Court to Lester Wallack, actor-manager of the renowned Wallack's Theatre. Although the essential facts of the subsequent hearing have been accurately preserved in Odell's Annals, the case deserves to be reopened and examined more carefully. To contemporary observers, the proceedings revealed the court's inability and unwillingness to protect the work of a respected English dramatist. Yet events following the judge's decision ultimately won for Robertson and Wallack the vindication denied by the court, and the case is now remarkable as a judicial ‘last stand’ against the legitimate rights of foreign authors.