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Identifying benthic substrates is important to researchers studying aquatic organisms in fresh and salt water systems. Benthic substrates are often not visible from the surface making it necessary to find another method to gather these data. Previous research has demonstrated that low cost side-scan sonar is a reliable way to identify hard substrates, such as rock and gravel, in a small, freshwater stream. In this study, the reliability of the side-scan sonar to accurately identify softer substrates such as grass and mud was tested in a large, brackish lagoon system. A total area of 11.55 km2 was surveyed with the sonar. Videos and pictures were taken at various points to groundtruth the sonar images and provide a measure of accuracy. Five substrate types were identified: dense seagrass, sparse seagrass, mangrove soil, mangrove soil with rock, and silt. Unidentifiable substrates were classified as unknown. A manually zoned benthic substrate map was created from the sonar recordings. Dense seagrass was most accurately identified. Sparse seagrass was the least accurately identified. A bathymetric map was also created from the sonar recordings.
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat–parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host–bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host–bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat–streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat–fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
Riparian forests (RF) provide shelter, feeding resources and commuting areas and are fundamental for local fauna during long drought periods in tropical dry forests. Nevertheless, information regarding vertebrate ecology in tropical RF is scarce. The studies of bats in riparian habitats have been mostly focused on insectivorous assemblages in non-tropical regions. We contrasted the occurrence of frugivorous bats between RF and upland dry forest (UDF) in a Neotropical dry forest region and evaluated how vegetation structure modulates frugivorous bat presence and abundance. We sampled bat ensembles and vegetation structure in three UDF and three RF sites in Jalisco, Mexico. Bat ensembles and populations were analysed with generalized linear models, including as independent factors: (1) habitat and (2) vegetation attributes. In 72 nights we captured 840 bats belonging to seven species. No effect of habitat type or vegetation structure on species richness was found, but habitat type did affect bat species composition and abundance. Moreover, vegetation structural traits affected frugivorous bat abundance. Frugivore abundance was higher in RF than in UDF probably because RF provides greater resources and more roosting sites. Riparian forests also present more canopy cover and accessible flight spaces. Our results support the importance of RF for frugivorous bats in terms of abundance and composition. Additionally, the lack of differences in species richness between UDF and RF highlights the importance of both habitats for maintaining frugivorous bats, as well as the related ecosystem processes and services in tropical dry forest landscapes.
About three years after Gaia was set into orbit, the first release of Gaia data, DR1, has been published by ESA and DPAC. Gaia’s first archive contains the results from the analysis of the initial 14 months of mission data. Outstandingly, it includes TGAS, Gaia-Tycho2 astrometric solution for about 2 million stars up to visible magnitude around 11.5.
In addition to the five parameter astrometric solution for the sky (positions, parallaxes and proper motions), future Gaia data releases will provide the spectral energy distributions from 330-1050 nm, together with radial velocities, for sources brighter than visible magnitude 16. Within this context, the relevance of Gaia data for the study of PN is be briefly presented.
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of major importance for the livestock industry. It shows a remarkable ability to survive over long periods without feeding. However, the mechanisms used to endure long-term starvation are poorly understood. It is believed that autophagy, a process of intracellular protein degradation, may play a significant role to confront adverse environmental conditions. To advance our understanding of autophagy in R. microplus, in the present study we report the molecular characterization of three autophagy-related (ATG) genes, namely, RmATG3, RmATG4 and RmATG6, as well as their expression profiles in different developmental stages and organs of the parasite. The deduced amino acid sequences derived from the characterized gene sequences were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis. The testing produced significant alignments with respective ATG proteins from Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes scapularis ticks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that RmATG4 and RmATG6 transcripts were elevated in egg and ovary tissue, when compared with larva and midgut samples, while RmATG3 expression in midgut was 2-fold higher than in egg, larva and ovary samples.
The diet and feeding pattern of scyphomedusa Stomolophus meleagris (Rhizostomeae) was studied, by comparing stomach samples from different developmental stages and environmental zooplankton with the aim to determine diet composition, trophic niche breadth, selectivity and feeding overlap of this edible jellyfish species. Samplings were performed during April and December 2010 and in January 2011, in the coastal lagoon Las Guásimas (27°49′–27°54′N 110°40′–110°35′W), central Gulf of California, which consisted of zooplankton tows and jellyfish collections for stomach content. More than 39 prey items were identified in the gut contents (N = 69), from which eight taxa formed over 90% of the total. Fish eggs were considered main prey (58.6%), copepods (10.8%), veliger larvae of gastropod (13.0%) and bivalve (12.7%) were secondary prey while cirriped and decapod larvae were incidental prey (<3%). However, these proportions varied significantly between small, medium and large size classes of medusa as well as number and type of prey increasing as a function of medusa size. Values of Levin's index confirmed S. meleagris is a specialist predator and Pearre's index showed positive selection of fish eggs, gastropods, bivalves and cirripeds while selectivity was negative for copepods and appendicularians. The relative timing of these changes suggests that ontogenetic processes are closely related with shift in the diet, which indicates increasing predation pressure during development of the medusoid stage of this species, thus emphasizing their ecological importance in coastal ecosystems.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
Embryo splitting might be used to increase offspring yield and for molecular analysis of embryo competence. How splitting affects developmental potential of embryos is unknown. This research aimed to study the effect of bovine blastocyst splitting on morphological and gene expression homogeneity of demi-embryos and on embryo competence during elongation. Grade I bovine blastocyst produced in vitro were split into halves and distributed in nine groups (3 × 3 setting according to age and stage before splitting; age: days 7–9; stage: early, expanded and hatched blastocysts). Homogeneity and survival rate in vitro after splitting (12 h, days 10 and 13) and the effect of splitting on embryo development at elongation after embryo transfer (day 17) were assessed morphologically and by RT-qPCR. The genes analysed were OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, CDX2, TP1, TKDP1, EOMES, and BAX. Approximately 90% of split embryos had a well conserved defined inner cell mass (ICM), 70% of the halves had similar size with no differences in gene expression 12 h after splitting. Split embryos cultured further conserved normal and comparable morphology at day 10 of development; this situation changes at day 13 when embryo morphology and gene expression differed markedly among demi-embryos. Split and non-split blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows and were recovered at day 17. Fifty per cent of non-split embryos were larger than 100 mm (33% for split embryos). OCT4, SOX2, TP1 and EOMES levels were down-regulated in elongated embryos derived from split blastocysts. In conclusion, splitting day-8 blastocysts yields homogenous demi-embryos in terms of developmental capability and gene expression, but the initiation of the filamentous stage seems to be affected by the splitting.
The Iberian Peninsula is part of the South European Atlantic Shelf within the Lusitanian ecoregion. Given the characteristics of this region, a great invertebrate biodiversity is expected. Nevertheless, no literature records of Polycladida are known for the Cantabrian Sea. Here, we report the presence of six polyclad species, including one new species. Notoplana vitrea, considered endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, was found in the Cantabrian Sea, demonstrating its presence in Atlantic waters. This species was previously reported for these waters on two natural history photographic websites: the importance of searching, indexing and disseminating this type of record for the scientific community is discussed. Discocelis tigrina is reported for the first time for the Cantabrian Sea, and is the northernmost record to date. In this paper, Pleioplana atomata is reported for the second time for the Iberian Peninsula, yet is the first record for the Cantabrian Sea. Although a literature record of Leptoplana tremellaris for the Iberian Peninsula exists, it is considered a misidentification of L. mediterranea; therefore, this work provides the first record of L. tremellaris for the Iberian Peninsula. The cosmopolitan species Cycloporus papillosus is also reported for the Cantabrian Sea. A new species, Imogine fafai sp. nov., is described and taxonomically compared with other species of the genus.
The Stroop Color-Word Test is a useful tool to evaluate executive attention and speed of processing. Recent studies have provided norms for different populations of healthy individuals to avoid misinterpretation of scores due to demographic and cultural differences. In addition, clinical norms may improve the assessment of cognitive dysfunction severity and its clinical course. Spanish normative data are provided for 158 closed traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 149 first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH) patients. A group of 285 Spanish healthy individuals (HC) was also considered for comparison purposes. Differences between groups were found in all Stroop scores with HC outperforming both clinical groups (p < .002 in all cases; d > .3 in all cases). TBI patients scored lower than SCH patients in word-reading (p < .001 and d = .6), and color-naming conditions (p < .001 and d = .4), but not in the color-word condition (p = .34 and d = .03). However, SCH patients exhibited a higher interference effect as compared to TBI (p < .002 and d = .5). Three sets of norms stratified by age and education (HC), and by education (TBI and SCH) are presented for clinical use.
In the past 20 years, one of the best catalytic materials for hydrodesulphurization reactions of crude oil has been the transition sulfides, MoS2, known also as the “workhorse” of the refinery industry. It has been proven by this and other research groups that the MoS2 laminar structure can increase its catalytic activity when promoted with cobalt or nickel. The location of active sites seem to be at rim and edge sites on that particular laminar structure, as demonstrated using Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray techniques. However, due to maximum capability of this promoted systems, Co(Ni)/MoS2 to remove heterogeneous atoms (S, N, O) - a search for new catalytic materials has currently been an ongoing activity in the HDS community. Here, we will present the new family of ternary phase catalyst with special emphasis on their structural aspects, as revealed by aberration corrected (Cs) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques, in an attempt to describe the nature of active sites on this porous nano-rod like catalytic materials.
The presence of a shrimp necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHP) in zooplankton samples from the Gulf of California was confirmed by qPCR and DNA sequences analysis. Samples of zooplankton were collected from stations located on the eastern shore of the Gulf of California, an area adjacent geographically to the coast of Sonora, Mexico. Three zooplankton samples (NHP S3, S23 and S24) were detected. These samples were collected in Bahía de Agiabampo and Bahía de Guasimas, an area distributed along the length of the coast in the vicinity of a shrimp farm area. These results clearly indicate that NHP-B may be associated or colonizing zooplankton, which may serve as a potential vector of potential importance in the spread of this disease. The biological meaning of this finding is discussed.