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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are critical to multiple myeloma (MM) disease control. IMiDs act by inducing Cereblon-dependent degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3, which leads to IRF4 and MYC downregulation (collectively termed the “Ikaros axis”). We therefore hypothesized that IMiD treatment fails to downregulate the Ikaros axis in IMiD resistant MM. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To measure IMiD-induced Ikaros axis downregulation, we designed an intracellular flow cytometry assay that measured relative protein levels of IKZF1, IKZF3, IRF4 and MYC in MM cells following ex vivo treatment with the IMiD Pomalidomide (Pom). We established this assay using Pom-sensitive parental and dose-escalated Pom-resistant MM cell lines before assessing Ikaros axis downregulation in CD38+CD138+ MM cells in patient samples (bone marrow aspirates). To assess the Ikaros axis in the context of MM intratumoral heterogeneity, we used a 35-marker mass cytometry panel to simultaneously characterize MM subpopulations in patient samples. Lastly, we determined ex vivo drug sensitivity in patient samples via flow cytometry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our hypothesis was supported in MM cell lines, as resistant lines showed no IMiD-induced decrease in any Ikaros axis proteins. However, when assessed in patient samples, Pom treatment caused a significant decrease in IKZF1, IKZF3 and IRF4 regardless of IMiD sensitivity. Mass cytometry in patient samples revealed that individual Ikaros axis proteins were differentially expressed between subpopulations. When correlating this with ex vivo Pom sensitivity of MM subpopulations, we observed that low IKZF1 and IKZF3 corresponded to Pom resistance. Interestingly, most of these resistant populations still expressed MYC. We therefore assessed whether IMiD resistant MM was MYC dependent by treating with MYCi975. In 88% (7/8) of patient samples tested, IMiD resistant MM cells were sensitive to MYC inhibition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: While our findings did not support our initial hypothesis, our data suggest a mechanism where MYC expression becomes Ikaros axis independent to drive IMiD resistance, and resistant MM is still dependent on MYC. This suggests targeting MYC directly or indirectly via a mechanism to be determined may be an effective strategy to eradicate IMiD resistant MM.
Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) are medical devices that use physical means to separate oxygen from the atmosphere to produce concentrated, medical-grade gas. Providing oxygen to low-resources environments, such as austere locations, military combat zones, rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and during disasters, becomes expensive and logistically intensive. Recent advances in separation technology have promoted the development of POC systems ruggedized for austere use. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the available data regarding POCs in these challenge environments.
PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched from inception to November 2021. Articles addressing the use of POCs in low-resource settings were selected. Three authors were independently involved in the search, review, and synthesis of the articles. Evidence was graded using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines.
The initial search identified 349 articles, of which 40 articles were included in the review. A total of 724 study subjects were associated with the included articles. There were no Level I systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials.
Generally, POCs are a low-cost, light-weight tool that may fill gaps in austere, military, veterinary, EMS, and disaster medicine. They are cost-effective in low-resource areas, such as rural and high-altitude hospitals in developing nations, despite relatively high capital costs associated with initial equipment purchase. Implementation of POC in low-resource locations is limited primarily on access to electricity but can otherwise operate for thousands of hours without maintenance. They provide a unique advantage in combat operations as there is no risk of explosive if oxygen tanks are struck by high-velocity projectiles. Despite their deployment throughout the battlespace, there were no manuscripts identified during the review involving the efficacy of POCs for combat casualties or clinical outcomes in combat. Veterinary medicine and animal studies have provided the most robust data on the physiological effectiveness of POCs. The success of POCs during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the potential for POCs during future mass-casualty events. There is emerging technology available that combines a larger oxygen concentrator with a compressor system capable of refilling small oxygen cylinders, which could transform the delivery of oxygen in austere environments if ruggedized and miniaturized. Future clinical research is needed to quantify the clinical efficacy of POCs in low-resource settings.
Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and depression (D) run in families. This susceptibility is partly due to hundreds or thousands of common genetic variants, each conferring a fractional risk. The cumulative effects of the associated variants can be summarised as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Using data from the EUropean Network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) first episode case–control study, we aimed to test whether PRSs for three major psychiatric disorders (SZ, BD, D) and for intelligent quotient (IQ) as a neurodevelopmental proxy, can discriminate affective psychosis (AP) from schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD).
Participants (842 cases, 1284 controls) from 16 European EU-GEI sites were successfully genotyped following standard quality control procedures. The sample was stratified based on genomic ancestry and analyses were done only on the subsample representing the European population (573 cases, 1005 controls). Using PRS for SZ, BD, D, and IQ built from the latest available summary statistics, we performed simple or multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for 10 principal components for the different clinical comparisons.
In case–control comparisons PRS-SZ, PRS-BD and PRS-D distributed differentially across psychotic subcategories. In case–case comparisons, both PRS-SZ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.92] and PRS-D (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.61) differentiated AP from SSD; and within AP categories, only PRS-SZ differentiated BD from psychotic depression (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.23–3.74).
Combining PRS for severe psychiatric disorders in prediction models for psychosis phenotypes can increase discriminative ability and improve our understanding of these phenotypes. Our results point towards the potential usefulness of PRSs in specific populations such as high-risk or early psychosis phases.
Substantial evidence exists that members of the US Congress vary in their lawmaking effectiveness. Less known, however, is whether constituents are sufficiently informed and inclined to hold their representatives accountable, based on their effectiveness. We conduct two separate survey experiments, informing some constituents about lawmakers' effectiveness and comparing their responses to those with the baseline level of information. We find that voters demonstrate little knowledge of their elected officials' lawmaking effectiveness. When presented with objective and credible information about lawmaking effectiveness, however, respondents express greater approval of more effective lawmakers. Effects are strongest among ideological moderates, but are even pronounced among partisans, who approve of effective representatives of the opposing party, and disapprove of ineffective representatives from their own party.
To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system.
Design, setting, and participants:
Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20–December 17, 2020.
Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity.
In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24–5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71–6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity.
Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
This chapter considers the future of health issues and how health promotion will be needed and challenged. The chapter discusses the relationship between the environment and human health through the lens of concepts including the Ottawa Charter, systems thinking approaches and One Health. A detailed discussion of health promotion relating to the Covid-19 pandemic demonstrates the importance of clear health communication, while also considering the ways personal beliefs, societal expectations and different cultures can affect the implementation and success of health communication. Finally the chapter looks at the ways in which health promotion will need to respond the diverse needs within society in order to increase equality and inclusion.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will help to understand a novel therapeutic approach to a common type of acute myeloid leukemia. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (or FLT3) mutations occur in ˜30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations are particularly important in relapsed/refractory FLT3 mutant AML, which portends poor prognosis. This study describes a therapeutic approach to overcoming resistance conferred by FLT3-TKD mutations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To understand the efficacy of a novel type 1 FLT3 inhibitor (NCGC1481), as a monotherapy and combination therapy, several assays were utilized to interrogate functionality of these therapies. Cell lines and patient samples containing aspartate 835 to tyrosine mutations (D835Y, the most common TKD alteration) and phenylalanine 691 to leucine (F691L) were utilized to examine the effects of NCGC1481 with and without other targeted therapies like MEK inhibitors. Specifically, assays measuring viability, cell death using flow cytometry, in vitro clonogenicity, cellular signaling, and xenograft survival were examined in these FLT3-TKD AML models. Synergy was also measured using well described methods, which also allowed for appropriate dose finding for drug combination experiments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our novel type 1 FLT3 inhibitor (NCGC1481) was particularly effective in the most common FLT3 TKD mutant, D835Y. NCGC1481 reduced viability and cell signaling, while also inducing cell death and prolonging xenograft survival in the FLT3-D835Y model system. In contrast, clinically approved FLT3 inhibitors were less effective at suppressing AML cells expressing FLT3-D835Y. In the case of FLT3-F691L, most of the FLT3 inhibitors tested, including NCGC1481, suppressed canonical FLT3 signaling, but did not significantly reduce viability or leukemic clonogenicity. However, when NCGC1481 was combined with other targeted agents like MEK inhibitors, at synergistic doses, eradication of the FLT3-F691L AML clone was substantially increased. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In AML, response to FLT3 inhibitor therapy is often short-lived, with resistance sometimes occurring via FLT3-TKD mutations. Given the dismal prognosis of relapsed FLT3 mutant AML, novel therapies are necessary. This study describes efficacy of a novel FLT3 inhibitor, along with its synergistic activity when combined with other targeted agents.
Brain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted variation in amygdala activity and skin conductance (SC) response during emotion processing.
We included 177 participants (n = 108 cases with disruptive behaviour and/or ODD/CD and n = 69 TD), aged 8–18 years, across nine sites in Europe, as part of the EU Aggressotype and MATRICS projects. All participants performed an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging task.
Differences between cases and TD in affective processing, as well as specificity of activation patterns for aggression subtypes and CU traits, were assessed. Simultaneous SC recordings were acquired in a subsample (n = 63). Cases compared to TDs showed higher amygdala activity in response to negative faces (fearful and angry) v. shapes. Subtyping cases according to aggression-related subtypes did not significantly influence on amygdala activity; while stratification based on CU traits was more sensitive and revealed decreased amygdala activity in the high CU group. SC responses were significantly lower in cases and negatively correlated with CU traits, reactive and proactive aggression.
Our results showed differences in amygdala activity and SC responses to emotional faces between cases with ODD/CD and TD, while CU traits moderate both central (amygdala) and peripheral (SC) responses. Our insights regarding subtypes and trait-specific aggression could be used for improved diagnostics and personalized treatment.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this study is to define the molecular mechanisms that control survival of malignant stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are not effectively eradicated by standard treatment and lead to resistance and relapse, which contribute to poor survival rates. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The recently FDA approved venetoclax, a BCL2 inhibitor, with azacitidine, a hypomethylating agent leads to a 70% response rate in AML patients. Analysis of patients treated with this regimen showed direct targeting of LSCs. BCL2 has a non-canonical function in regulation of intracellular calcium. To determine how BCL2 mediated calcium signaling plays a role in LSC biology, we used LSCs isolated from venetoclax/azacitidine (ven/aza) sensitive and resistant patient samples to measure expression of calcium channels via RNA seq. BIO-ID, siRNA, flow cytometry, seahorse assays, calcium measurements and colony assays were used to determine the effects of calcium channel perturbation on LSC biology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: BCL2 inhibition leads to decreased OXPHOS activity in primary AML specimens. BIO-ID studies revealed cation/metal ion transporters, ER membrane proteins and ER membrane organization as top enriched pathways interacting with BCL2. RNA-seq data showed increased expression of genes involved in calcium influx into the ER in ven/aza sensitive LSCs and increased expression of genes involved in calcium efflux from the ER in ven/aza resistant samples. Ven/Aza resistant LSCs have increased mitochondrial calcium content, consistent with their increased OXPHOS activity as calcium is required for OXPHOS. Perturbation of these channels leads to decreased OXPHOS activity and decreased viability in LSCs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We postulate that a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind ven/aza targeting of LSCs will lead to the development of novel therapies for patients who do not respond to ven/aza. Our data show targeting intracellular calcium signaling could be a viable therapeutic strategy for AML patients.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
We implemented a guideline for appropriate acid suppressant use in hematology-oncology patients. This intervention resulted in a sustained reduction in proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use without an increase in rates of gastrointestinal bleeding. Practice guidelines are effective in reducing PPI use, which is associated with risk of Clostridioides difficile infection.
Impairment in financial capacity is an early sign of cognitive decline and functional impairment in late life. Cognitive impairments such as executive dysfunction are well documented in late-life major depression; however, little progress has been made in assessing associations of these impairments with financial incapacity.
Participants included 95 clinically depressed and 41 nondepressed older adults without dementia. Financial capacity (assessed with the Managing Money scale of the Independent Living Scale), cognitive functioning (comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation), and depression severity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24) were assessed. T tests were used to assess group differences. Linear regression was used to analyze data.
Depressed participants performed significantly lower on financial capacity (t = 2.98, p < .01). Among depressed participants, executive functioning (B = .24, p < .05) was associated with reduced financial capacity, controlling for age, gender, education, depression severity, and other cognitive domains.
Our results underscore the importance of assessing financial capacity in older depressed adults as they are likely vulnerable to financial abuse even in the absence of dementia. It will be valuable to assess whether treatment for depression is an effective intervention to improve outcomes.