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To determine risk factors for bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae producing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) or K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), as well as risk factors for mortality associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, among intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Two case-control studies were conducted in a patient cohort with K. pneumoniae BSIs in an 8-bed ICU in a Greek hospital from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2008. In study 1, patients with K. pneumoniae BSIs were allocated among 3 groups according to isolate susceptibility profile: (1) carbapenem-susceptible insolates (control group), (2) MBL-producing isolates, or (3) KPC-producing isolates. The MBL and KPC groups were compared with the control group to identify risk factors for development of K. pneumoniae BSI. In study 2, patients with K. pneumoniae BSIs who died were compared with survivors to identify risk factors for mortality.
Fifty-nine patients had K. pneumoniae BSIs (22 with carbapenem-susceptible isolates, 18 with MBL-producing isolates, and 19 with KPC-producing isolates). All KPC-producing isolates carried the blaKPC-2 gene, and 17 of 18 MBL-producing isolates carried blaVIM-1 Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (odds ratio, 1.13 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.25]; P = .02) was independently associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae BSIs. Nine (41%) of 22 control patients, 8 (44%) of 18 MBL group patients, and 13 (68%) of 19 KPC group patients died in the ICU. Nine (41%) of 22 control patients, 10 (56%) of 18 MBL group patients, and 15 (79%) of 19 KPC group patients died in the hospital. Isolation of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was an independent predictor of ICU death (P = .04) and in-hospital death (P = .03) but not infection-attributable death.
BSIs due to KPC-producing K. pneumoniae resulted in significantly increased mortality. The accurate and rapid detection of these pathogens is necessary for therapeutic considerations and for the implementation of infection control measures to contain them.
To investigate whether there is a correlation between the rates of antimicrobial drug consumption in hospital departments and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinically important bacteria recovered in the hospital.
Tertiary care hospital in Greece.
Data on antimicrobial consumption (from January 2001 through December 2004) were expressed as defined daily doses per 100 bed-days. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcusfaecium recovered during the same time period were calculated by the microbiology department. We then performed the following analyses: (1) a comparison of the consumption rates for different antimicrobial groups in individual hospital departments, (2) a comparison of the prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobials, and (3) a correlation analysis of antimicrobial consumption rates and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.
The rates of antimicrobial consumption and the prevalence of resistance varied substantially among the hospital's departments. The annual rate of consumption for carbapenems correlated with the rate of consumption for glycopeptides and third-generation cephalosporins (P < .05). Among P. aeruginosa isolates, the prevalence of imipenem resistance correlated with the prevalence of resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime (P < .05). The rate of carbapenem consumption correlated with the prevalence of imipenem resistance among P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates (P < .05). The rate of aminoglycoside consumption correlated with the prevalence of amikacin resistance among P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli isolates (P < .05). However, the rate of consumption for fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides had no correlation with the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance among gram-negative bacteria or vancomycin resistance among E. faecium isolates.
These data are suggestive of a differential relationship between antimicrobial consumption and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among various species and for various antimicrobial agents. These findings may help to optimize antimicrobial prescription policies in the hospital, especially in departments that have both high rates of antimicrobial consumption and a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.
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