Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy has been found efficient in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mostly among rape victims, but has not been explored in combat-related PTSD. Five patients with severe chronic PTSD, unresponsive to previous treatment (medication and supportive therapy) are described. Patients were evaluated with the PTSD Symptom Scale–Interview, and Beck Depression Inventory, before and after 10–15 sessions of PE therapy. All five patients showed marked improvement with PE, with a mean decrease of 48% in PTSD Symptom Scale–Interview score and 69% in Beck Depression Inventory score. Moreover, four patients maintained treatment gains or kept improving 6–18 months after the treatment. The results suggest that PE was effective in reducing combat-related chronic PTSD symptoms.