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Sports victory constitutes an important part of propaganda in authoritarian states. The heavy state investment in sports industries and sports culture in China illustrates the political importance of sports. However, few studies have systematically examined the exact impact of sports propaganda on public opinion. Using a survey experiment conducted in two Chinese cities, this article finds that broadcast highlighting national sports achievements has significant positive effects on general satisfaction and compliance with the local governments. These results expand on the small, but growing, literature on the effects of sports on political opinions and help detail the specific ways in which sports can affect political attitudes.
The association of soft drink consumption with mental problems in Asian adolescents has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the association of soft drink consumption and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents in China.
A cross-sectional study to investigate the association of intake of soft drinks and sugars from soft drinks with symptoms of anxiety and depression measured by the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively.
A comprehensive university in Changsha, China.
Newly enrolled college students in 2017.
In total, 8226 students completed the investigation and 8085 students with no systemic disorders were finally analysed. Students consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week had significantly higher (mean difference; 95 % CI) GAD-2 (0·15; 0·07, 0·23) and PHQ-2 (0·27; 0·19, 0·35) scores compared with those barely consuming soft drinks, adjusted for demographic and behavioural factors. Those consuming >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks had significantly higher GAD-2 (0·11; 0·04, 0·18) and PHQ-2 (0·22; 0·15, 0·29) scores compared with non-consumers. The mediation effect of obesity in the associations was not clinically significant.
Adolescents consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week, or >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks, had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression. Dietary suggestion is needed to prevent anxiety and depression in adolescents.
Despite the fact that the many researchers, who have worked on the problem of indexing powder diffraction patterns, have made several important advances in the field and have proven in theory at least that any pattern can eventually be indexed, the procedures are frequently so laborious as to drive the investigator to despair. Starting with the knowledge that convolution functions and particularly self-convolutions ﹛so well known to crystallographers as Patterson functions) have the power to find the distances between points in space, and knowing that reciprocal space is filled with repeating distances, the present authors have evolved a graphical system for carrying out the previously discovered procedures in an easy and rapid manner.
The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms.
A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs. Associations between functional connectivity and clinical features in OCD were analyzed.
Compared with HCs, OCD patients showed significantly decreased cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in executive control and emotion processing networks. Within the OCD group, decreased functional connectivity in an executive network spanning the right cerebellar Crus I and the inferior parietal lobule was positively correlated with symptom severity, and decreased connectivity in an emotion processing network spanning the left cerebellar lobule VI and the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with illness duration.
Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion regulation in this condition.
Background: This study assesses the value of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for early diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) among acute vertigo. Methods: Thirty-three cases of vestibular neuritis (VN), 96 patients with other acute vertigo (AV), and 50 cases of normal controls used vHIT to quantitatively test a pair of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflection (VOR) gains, two pairs of vertical VOR gains, and the corresponding three pairs of VOR gain asymmetry. The peculiarity of VOR gains in VN and the differences between VN and other AV, normal controls by vHIT, were collected and analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the three pairs of VOR gains asymmetry between VN and other AV, and normal controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity was 87.9% and specificity was 94.3% in differentiating VN from normal and other acute vertigo by vHIT. Conclusions: This study shows vHIT has advantages in the diagnosis of VN in acute vertigo with good sensitivity and specificity and indicates a widespread clinical application.
This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the RNAhybrid software, and KEGG pathways associated with these genes were analysed. A total of 18 555 913 and 20 847 000 effective reads were obtained from the test and control groups, respectively. In total, 373 known and 399 novel miRNAs were detected in the test group, and 358 known and 232 novel miRNAs were uncovered in the control group. A total of 35 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the test group compared to the control group, including 10 up-regulated miRNAs and 25 down-regulated miRNAs. Of these miRNAs, miR-223 exhibited the highest degree of up-regulation with an approximately 3-fold increase in expression, whereas miR-26a exhibited the most decreased expression level (more than 2-fold). The RNAhybrid software predicted 18 801 genes as potential targets of these 35 miRNAs. Furthermore, several immune response and signal transduction pathways, including the RIG-I-like receptor signalling pathway, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and Notch signal pathway, were enriched in these predicted targets. In summary, this study provided experimental evidence for the mechanism underlying the regulation of bovine mastitis by miRNAs and showed that miRNAs might be involved in signal pathways during S. agalactiae-induced mastitis.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
A compact three-dimensional (3D) circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna adopts three low-cost printed circuit boards to form an integrated and closed 3D structure, and the radiation patch and the feed patches are etched on the surface of that. A crossed slot is cut on the radiation patch to miniaturize the antenna, and triangular feed patches are introduced to increase the bandwidths. In addition, because of the utilization of a low-loss series feed line, the antenna has a high efficiency of more than 95%. A prototype of the antenna is measured to validate the method. The dimensions of the antenna is 0.064λ × 0.36λ (λ is the wavelength in free space at 1.2 GHz). The results indicate that the impedance bandwidth for voltage standing wave ratio ≤ 2 reaches 23%, and the bandwidth for axial ratio (AR) ≤ 3 dB reaches 10.1%. In the overlap band, the gains are > 4.5dBic. Additionally, the 3 dB beamwidth is more than 114°, and the beamwidth for AR ≤ 3 dB is more than 131° at 1.2 GHz.
Despite strict state controls, negative news about local officials is reported in China. Faced with political constraints and the incentive and pressure to earn profits, municipal television news programmes have developed and adopted the life news model (minsheng xinwen), which aims to help citizens solve problems. The production process of this news model has transformed the political role of the broadcast media at the local level. Many life news reports focus on disputes between citizens and local officials. Thus, addressing citizen grievances essentially facilitates public service provision. Based on an ethnographic case study of a municipal television news programme, this article finds that the production process of life news reports can facilitate public service provision by correcting local officials’ behaviour, regardless of whether the news reports are eventually broadcast. This unintended role is a result of the power negotiation between local officials and journalists who face immense commercial pressure.
The finite difference (FD) method is popular in the computational fluid dynamics and widely used in various flow simulations. Most of the FD schemes are developed on the uniform Cartesian grids; however, the use of nonuniform or curvilinear grids is inevitable for adapting to the complex configurations and the coordinate transformation is usually adopted. Therefore the question that whether the characteristics of the numerical schemes evaluated on the uniform grids can be preserved on the nonuniform grids arises, which is seldom discussed. Based on the one-dimensional wave equation, this paper systematically studies the characteristics of the high-order FD schemes on nonuniform grids, including the order of accuracy, resolution characteristics and the numerical stability. Especially, the Fourier analysis involving the metrics is presented for the first time and the relation between the resolution of numerical schemes and the stretching ratio of grids is discussed. Analysis shows that for smooth varying grids, these characteristics can be generally preserved after the coordinate transformation. Numerical tests also validate our conclusions.
The aim of the present work was to determine maternal and fetal outcomes of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in twin pregnancies. All twin pregnancies delivered above 28 gestational weeks in West China Second University Hospital from January 2013 to May 2015 were included. Data on maternal demographics and obstetric complications together with fetal outcomes were collected. The risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were determined in relation to ICP by crude odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analysis concentrated on the effect of assisted reproductive technology (ART), ICP severity, and onset time. A total of 1,472 twin pregnancies were included, of which 362 were cholestasis patients and 677 were conceived by ART. Higher rates of preeclampsia (aOR 1.96; 95% CI 1.35, 2.85), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (aOR 3.10; 95% CI 2.10, 4.61), and preterm deliveries (aOR 3.20; 95% CI 2.35, 4.37) were observed in ICP patients. Subgroup analysis revealed higher incidences of adverse outcomes in severe and early onset ICP groups. In conclusion, adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were strongly associated with ICP in twin patients. Active management and close antenatal monitoring are needed, especially in the early onset and severe groups.
Studies on Chinese politics frequently utilize the safety valve analogy to describe various political decisions that allow space for feedback and challenges. Drawing upon these empirical studies and the theoretical literature on institution, authoritarianism, and democratization, this review essay delineates the logic of the safety valve strategy and how it fits into the scheme of prolonging authoritarian rule. It identifies the use of informal and temporary measures to appease aggrieved citizens as the central feature of the safety valve strategy, complementing formal means such as institutional reform. The informal and temporary measures are different from the patronage system, and credibility is not necessarily a prerequisite for effectiveness. The safety valve strategy contributes to authoritarian resilience by relieving public frustration, reducing the propensity to contentious politics, and in some cases enabling the government to collect information on potential opposition groups or emerging problems.
Our experiments show that external focusing and initial laser energy strongly influences filament generated by the femtosecond Ti–sapphire laser in air. The experimental measurements show the filament length can be extended both by increasing the laser energy and focal length of focusing lens. On the other hand, the plasma fluorescence emission can be enhanced by increasing the laser energy with fixed focal length or decreasing the focal length. In addition, the collapse distance measured experimentally are larger than the calculated ones owing to the group-velocity-dispersion effect. In addition, we find that the line widths of the spectral lines from
is independent of filament positions, laser energies and external focusing.