The effect of clonazepam on the restless legs syndrome was studied in a group of 6 patients. Following a drug-free period, 3 patients received clonazepam for 4 weeks followed by placebo for 4 weeks thereafter and 3 patients received the same medication and for the same length of time but in reverse order. The effectiveness of the medication was evaluated by means of a self-rating system in which patients assigned a score daily to the degree of discomfort experienced in the previous 24 hours. Three patients improved on clonazepam but 2 of these also improved on placebo. Clonazepam was not shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of RLS.