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Spiders are natural specialists in fiber processing. In particular, cribellate spiders manifest this ability as they produce a wool of nanofibers to capture prey. During its production they deploy a sophisticated movement of their spinnerets to darn in the fibers as well as a comb-like row of setae, termed calamistrum, on the metatarsus which plays a key role in nanofiber processing. In comparison to the elaborate nanofiber extraction and handling process by the spider’s calamistrum, the human endeavors of spinning and handling of artificial nanofibers is still a primitive technical process. An implementation of biomimetics in spinning technology could lead to new materials and applications. Despite the general progress in related fields of nanoscience, the expected leap forward in spinning technology depends on a better understanding of the specific shapes and surfaces that control the forces at the nanoscale and that are involved in the mechanical processing of the nanofibers, respectively. In this study, the authors investigated the morphology of the calamistrum of the cribellate spider Uloborus plumipes. Focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy tomography provided a good image contrast and the best trade-off between investigation volume and spatial resolution. A comprehensive three-dimensional model is presented and the putative role of the calamistrum in nanofiber processing is discussed.
Ultrathin ferroelectric heterostructures (SrTiO3/BaTiO3/BaRuO3/SrRuO3) were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in terms of structural distortions and atomic displacements. The TiO2-termination at the top interface of the BaTiO3 layer was changed into a BaO-termination by adding an additional BaRuO3 layer. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging by aberration-corrected STEM revealed that an artificially introduced BaO-termination can be achieved by this interface engineering. By using fast sequential imaging and frame-by-frame drift correction, the effect of the specimen drift was significantly reduced and the signal-to-noise ratio of the HAADF images was improved. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the HAADF images was feasible, and an in-plane and out-of-plane lattice spacing of the BaTiO3 layer of 3.90 and 4.22 Å were determined. A 25 pm shift of the Ti columns from the center of the unit cell of BaTiO3 along the c-axis was observed. By spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy studies, a reduction of the crystal field splitting (CFS, ΔL3=1.93 eV) and an asymmetric broadening of the eg peak were observed in the BaTiO3 film. These results verify the presence of a ferroelectric polarization in the ultrathin BaTiO3 film.
When modeling the dynamics of robotic systems containing electric motors, the force generated by the motor is generally considered only as an applied torque or force that is independent of mechanical state variables such as velocity. Due to the electromechanical coupling effects in the motors, this approach leads engineers working on a robotic system to designing faulty controllers. In this paper, we propose a dynamics analysis model in which DC motor dynamics are embedded into a mechanical dynamics model such that the electromechanical coupling effects are included in the overall model. A model for the DC motor is developed based on its equivalent circuit model and incorporated into the generalized recursive dynamics formula previously developed by our group. The resulting dynamic numerical simulation program provides an effective and realistic approach for analyzing the electromechanical dynamics of robotic systems driven by DC motors. The developed numerical simulation tool is evaluated by applying to an industrial robot and a flexible antenna system driven by DC motors for a satellite.
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