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The present study aimed to examine the association between dietary pattern and the risk of high blood pressure (BP) and to estimate the attenuated effect by gender and obesity on the association using data from a prospective cohort study in Korea.
Prospective study. Diet was assessed using a validated 103-item FFQ and was input into factor analysis after adjustment for total energy intake.
Community-based Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort.
Healthy individuals (n 5151) without high BP at recruitment from the community-based cohort study.
Dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of high BP regardless of the type of covariates, with the exception of the ‘rice’ pattern. The effect of the ‘rice’ pattern was observed in both men (Ptrend = 0·013) and women (Ptrend < 0·001), but the statistical significance remained only in women after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0·004). The positive association of the ‘rice’ pattern with high BP risk was attenuated by obesity. After stratification by gender and obese status, in particular, the harmful effect of the ‘rice’ pattern was predominantly observed in obese women (Ptrend < 0·001) only.
This longitudinal study in Korean adults found a positive association of the ‘rice’ pattern with long-term development of incident high BP, predominantly in women. The association is likely to be attenuated by gender and obese status.
The association between body size, weight change and depression has not been systematically summarised, especially for individuals who are underweight.
To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis to examine the association between indices of body size, weight change and depression.
A total of 183 studies were selected. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) were extracted. A total of 76 studies contributed to data synthesis with a random-effect model, and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of potential moderators.
In cohort studies, underweight at baseline increased the risk of subsequent depression (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08–1.24). Overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) showed no statistically significant relationship with depression overall; however, the subgroup analyses found different results according to gender (men: OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.97, women: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.25). In cross-sectional designs, obesity with BMI >40kg/m2 showed a greater pooled odds ratio than obesity with BMI >30kg/m2.
Both underweight and obesity increase the risk of depression. The association between overweight and depression differs by gender.
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