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Oxide inclusions such as gray spots are the main defects caused by rail flash butt welding (FBW). An appropriate temperature field and upsetting process are essential for the extrusion of joint impurities. This study constructed a thermomechanical coupling model for the solid-state upsetting process of rail FBW through a combination of finite element simulation and experiment. Subsequently, the effects of different temperature fields and upsetting parameters on the extrusion behavior of impurities were studied. The results show that when the lateral deformation of the joint is not considered, selecting the appropriate upsetting length and increasing the width of the high-temperature plastic zone are beneficial for the extrusion of harmful impurities. Moreover, using variable speed upsetting or increasing the speed of the early upsetting facilitates the extrusion of impurities. However, the impurities in the deeper areas of the rail are difficult to move, and they easily form gray spot defects if the oxide inclusions remain.
The TiCxN1−x(001)/TiC(001) interface was studied by the first-principles method to provide the theoretical basis for developing TiCxN1−x/TiC coatings. The partial density of state (PDOS), charge density, charge density difference, and Mulliken population analysis were utilized to investigate the bonding nature and the electronic characteristic of the TiC0.25N0.75/TiC interface. The corresponding results indicate that the bonding nature at the interface is ionic and covalent characteristics, which also exist in bulk materials. The extreme similarity of PDOS among interfacial C, N, and Ti atoms and their bulk counterparts reveals that the electronic structure transition at the interface is smooth. The results of Mulliken population analysis and plots of charge density and charge density difference demonstrate that the charge increased for C in the TiC side is less than that for N in the TiC0.25N0.75 side, which reveals that the ionic bond in TiC0.25N0.75 is stronger than that in TiC. Therefore, TiC0.25N0.75 coating can be an alternative choice to combine with TiC coating in the actual production process of multilayer coatings.
We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
CSIRO Minerals is developing new technologies and approaches for the in situ recovery (ISR) of valuable metals. ISR provides opportunities to process small and/or deep deposits and could create additional revenue for conventional uneconomic mines. Unlike for conventional processing, no standard methodology exists for characterizing sample suitability for ISR. The authors are developing a workflow to understand sample and deposit amenability to ISR processing. A South Australian low-grade iron-oxide-copper-gold sulphide ore was studied. A total of 37 drill cores samples were obtained from the ore sample for detailed mineralogical and leaching characterization. A range of characterization techniques including chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence mapping, quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, computed tomography scanning, and bulk- and micro-X-ray diffraction analyses were applied to understand the ore mineralogy. Leaching tests at 50 °C were performed on selected samples to understanding their leaching behaviour. Mineralogical characterization found that copper was present mostly as discrete secondary copper sulphides distributed in various areas and at various specimen depths, which, in theory should be readily available for leaching, provided sufficient solution access exists. Leaching results showed steady copper recovery under the conditions tested. This study provides insight into understanding the suitability of an ore for ISR processing.
In the past few years, we have performed a 22 GHz H2O maser survey towards hundreds of BGPS sources using the 25-meter Nanshan Radio Telescope (NSRT) of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, and detected more than one hundred masers. Our aim is to study star formation activities associated with these sources, as well as search for any correlations that may exist between 22 GHz H2O masers and the evolutionary stage of high-mass star formation regions. The NSRT has been upgraded and have now an effective diameter of 26 meter. Besides, cryogenically cooled dual-beam receiver systems covering seven millimeter-wave observing bands have been installed on the NSRT. For the next step of maser observation, we will continue to do H2O and SiO masers survey of massive dust clumps and monitor some maser sources.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
The in situ synthesis of nickel-based composite coating reinforced with WC particle on mild steel has been investigated. Results show a planar crystal at the interface and some relatively coarse columnar dendrites on the side of the coating near the substrate. The synthesized WC particles homogenously distribute in the coating without cracks and pores. The maximum size, mean size, and volume fraction of the WC particle is 270 µm, 35 µm, and 71%, respectively. The microhardness value of the prepared coating can be up to a maximum of 755 HV2. The synthesized WC particles generally show a unique triangular prism shape, whose evolution rule and growth mechanism are investigated by Bravais–Friedel–Donnay–Harker theory. It is deduced that crystal structure and interface energy play important role in determining the shape of WC, which evolves from sphere to hexagonal prism and finally to triangular prism.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communication, which refers to direct communication between devices (i.e. users) without data traffic going through any infrastructure node, has been widely foreseen to be an important cornerstone to improve system performance and support new services beyond 2020 in the future fifth generation (5G) system. In general, the benefits resulting from D2D operation include, among others, highly increased spectral efficiency, improved typical user data rate and capacity per area, extended coverage, reduced latency, and enhanced cost and power efficiency. These benefits are resulting from the proximity of the users employing D2D communication (proximity gain), an increased spatial reuse of time and frequency resources (reuse gain) and from using a single link in the D2D mode rather than using both an uplink and a downlink resource when communicating via the base station in the cellular mode (hop gain). The chapter starts with an overview of the fourth generation (4G) D2D development. Afterward, the challenges to be addressed in the context of 5G D2D and related key enablers are discussed. In particular, this chapter covers Radio Resource Management (RRM) for mobile broadband applications, multi-hop D2D communication, especially for public safety and emergency services, and multi-operator D2D communication.
D2D: from 4G to 5G
In the future 5G system, it is predicted that network-controlled direct D2D communication offers the opportunity for local management of short-distance communication links and allows separating local traffic from the global network (i.e. local traffic offloading). By doing this, it will not only remove the load burden on the backhaul and core network caused by data transfer and related signaling, but also reduce the necessary effort for managing traffic at central network nodes. Direct D2D communication therefore extends the idea of distributed network management by incorporating the end devices into the network management concept. In this way, the wireless user device with D2D capability can have a dual role: either acting as an infrastructure node and/or as an end-user device in a similar way as a traditional device. Further, direct D2D facilitates low-latency communication due to the local communication link between users in proximity. In fact, direct D2D has been seen as one of the necessary features to support real-time services in the future 5G system . Another important aspect is reliability, where an additional D2D link can be employed to increase reliability through a larger extent of diversity.
The reporting period has shown that Space has become a firmly established domain in observational Astrophysics, also in the low energy astrophysics area. The launching of new spacecraft is always an important addition to the capabilities of the Astronomers, but the availability of space observatories is strongly affected by the fact that they disappear as their subsystems become damaged or, for other reasons, become inoperable. The relatively short life of astronomical space facilities has generated new dynamic in the life cycle of observational tools for the astronomer, rather different from that for ground facilities. Launch failures or the final in-orbit functionality verification can also very strongly affect the availability of observational capabilities in space astrophysics. The only spacecraft designed without this built-in life time restriction, is the Hubble Space Telescope, which can be serviced by the Space Shuttle.
In this work, we report on development of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion simulator needed to understand the kinetics of Cu-related metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cells has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of stress time, thus showing pronounced effect that the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results presented confirm the validity and the potential of the approach presented in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic devices.
Semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) are popularly used as bioimaging taggants in live cell imaging and spectroscopy. In recent years, Qdots taggants are emerging in agricultural applications. Studies are primarily focused on nanotoxicity of ultra-small size water-soluble Qdots in plant systems. Nanotoxicity is correlated with Qdot core composition and surface coating. However, Qdots with certain chemical composition and surface coating may boost plant growth. In this study, we report that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) capped ∼3.5 nm size ZnS:Mn/ZnS Qdots (NAC-Qdot) are efficiently uptaken by the snow pea (Pisum sativum L., a model plant) vascular system, enhancing the root growth at a dose level of 80 μg/mL. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed localization of NAC-Qdots in the intercellular regions. Germination and growth of the snow pea seeds were found to be strongly dependent on Qdot dosage and incubation time with Qdots. Seed germination reached 100% within 48 hours of NAC-Qdot exposure. Based on our preliminary findings, it is suggested that NAC-Qdot can be used as systemic plant nutrient material for boosting the seed germination and plant growth.
Atomic force microscopy is employed to study the structural changes in the morphology and physical characteristics of asphaltene aggregates as a function of temperature. The exotic fractal structure obtained by evaporation-driven asphaltene aggregates shows an interesting dynamics for a large range of temperatures from 25°C to 80°C. The changes in the topography, surface potential and adhesion are unnoticeable until 70°C. However, a significant change in the dynamics and material properties is displayed in the range of 70°C - 80°C, during which the aspahltene aggregates acquire ‘liquid-like’ mobility and fuse together. This behaviour is attributed to the transition from the pure amorphous phase to a crystalline liquid phase which occurs at approximately 70°C as shown by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, the charged nature of asphaltenes and bitumen is also explored using kelvin probe microscopy. Such observations can lead to the development of a rational approach to the fundamental understanding of asphaltene aggregation dynamics and may help in devising novel techniques for the handling and separation of asphaltene aggregates using dielectrophoretic methods.
Using nanoparticulate TiO2 films, the photocatalytic growth of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the AgNO3 aqueous solution has been studied in terms of reduction, nucleation, and coalescence. It was proved that Ag primary particles were formed in a growth time of <1 s after the photocatalysis started. The growth dynamics was found to be critical for isotropic and anisotropic growth of Ag NPs, depending on the AgNO3 concentration and surface properties of TiO2 films. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≤300 mg/L, the isotropic growth dominates the growth dynamic behavior, producing irregularly spherical Ag NPs. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≥400 mg/L, the increased reduction rate promotes the formation of Ag nanoplates in the product. Ostwald ripening and oriented attachment were suggested to be the mechanisms dominating the isotropic and anisotropic growth, respectively. A photocatalytic growth model of Ag NPs was proposed by taking Ag atom and Ag+ ion diffusion into consideration. The plasmonic properties of the Ag–TiO2 films were studied in terms of extinction, surface enhanced Raman scattering, and fluorescence enhancement.
We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad Hα emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of Hα is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in Hα, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105 – 107 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σe was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion (MBH–σe) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the MBH–σe correlation. The effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σe and the increase of σe due to the effects of bar are probable reasons for the observed offset for some galaxies, but in many galaxies the offset is real. A possible explanation for the MBH–σe offset could be lack of mergers and accretion events in the history of these galaxies which leads to a lack of BH-bulge co-evolution.
New numerical techniques are presented for the solution of the two-dimensional time fractional evolution equation in the unit square. In these methods, Galerkin finite element is used for the spatial discretization, and, for the time stepping, new alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on the backward Euler method combined with the first order convolution quadrature approximating the integral term are considered. The ADI Galerkin finite element method is proved to be convergent in time and in the L2 norm in space. The convergence order is 𝓞(k|ln k| + hr), where k is the temporal grid size and h is spatial grid size in the x and y directions, respectively. Numerical results are presented to support our theoretical analysis.
The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.