To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Perceptual information includes sensorimotor and emotional experience regarding the multimodality of the perceptual system. The current study provides an image-based visual analysis on the embodiment of color metaphors through the investigation of (i) the perceptual (dis)similarities between the literal and metaphorical meanings of the Chinese color terms hēi ‘black’ and bái ‘white’ and (ii) the influence of emotional valence on the degree of their perceptual (dis)similarities. Specifically, 24 concepts in three semantic domains were represented as eight-dimensional vectors based on the color information extracted from online images, including two color concepts of black and white, 20 abstract concepts referring to 8 metaphorical meanings of hēi and 12 metaphorical meanings of bái, and two abstract concepts referring to positive and negative affective polarity. Statistical analyses show that (i) the literal and metaphorical meanings of hēi and bái are perceptually distinguishable given their significant perceptual (dis)similarities and (ii) the observed perceptual distinguishability cannot be solely attributed to the (in)consistency of emotional valence associated with the senses. The present study provides nonlinguistic evidence for the embodiment of color metaphors in the Chinese context with an empirical approach that can simultaneously capture the metaphorical mappings and affective associations among cross-domain concepts with sensory data.
Design is a highly nonlinear chaotic dynamic process with many possible solutions, which requires enormous knowledge for designers. This paper investigates how environment-based design (EBD) methodology can help designers use only necessary knowledge for their creativity based on three methods: information search, knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. The methods are applied in an aircraft pylon design, which is evaluated by two aerospace design specialists. The paper discussed the different roles of EBD for novice and expert designers in regard to overcoming emotion and knowledge barriers to achieving designer creativity.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
We propose a 2.1 μm high-energy dissipative soliton resonant (DSR) fiber laser system based on a mode-locked seed laser and dual-stage amplifiers. In the seed laser, the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror technique is employed to realize mode-locking. The utilization of an in-band pump scheme and long gain fiber enables effectively exciting 2.1 μm pulses. A section of ultra-high numerical aperture fiber (UHNAF) with normal dispersion and high nonlinearity and an output coupler with a large coupling ratio are used to achieve a high-energy DSR system. By optimizing the UHNAF length to 55 m, a 2103.7 nm, 88.1 nJ DSR laser with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 0.48 nm and a pulse width of 17.1 ns is obtained under a proper intracavity polarization state and pump power. The output power and conversion efficiency are 0.233 W and 4.57%, respectively, both an order of magnitude higher than those of previously reported holmium-doped DSR seed lasers. Thanks to the high output power and nanosecond pulse width of the seed laser, the average power of the DSR laser is linearly scaled up to 50.4 W via a dual-stage master oscillator power amplifier system. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth broadens slightly to 0.52 nm, and no distortion occurs in the amplified pulse waveform. The corresponding pulse energy reaches 19.1 μJ, which is the highest pulse energy in a holmium-doped mode-locked fiber laser system to the best of our knowledge. Such a 2.1 μm, high-energy DSR laser with relatively wide pulse width has prospective applications in mid-infrared nonlinear frequency conversion.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory index (DII), inflammation biomarkers and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (±3 years), week of gestation (±1 week) and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a seventy-nine item semiquantitative FFQ. Inflammatory biomarkers were analysed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were −0·65 ± 1·58 for cases and −1·19 ± 1·47 for controls (P value < 0·001). E-DII scores positively correlated with interferon-γ (rs = 0·194, P value = 0·001) and IL-4 (rs = 0·135, P value = 0·021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (Ptrend < 0·001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2·18 times the lowest tertiles (95 % CI = 1·52, 3·13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30 % (95 % CI = 18 %, 43 %, P value < 0·001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1·07, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·11), IL-4 (OR = 1·26, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·54) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (OR = 1·17, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
Little is known about the effects of dietary patterns on prevalent pre-eclampsia in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the odds of pre-eclampsia among Chinese pregnant women. A 1:1 age- and gestational week-matched case–control study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2019. A total of 440 pairs of pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls were included. Dietary intakes were assessed by a seventy-nine-item FFQ and subsequently grouped into twenty-eight distinct groups. Factor analysis using the principal component method was adopted to derive the dietary patterns. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the associations of dietary patterns with prevalent pre-eclampsia. We identified four distinct dietary patterns: high fruit-vegetable, high protein, high fat-grain and high salt-sugar. We found that high fruit-vegetable dietary pattern (quartile (Q)4 v. Q1, OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·013) and high protein dietary pattern (Q4 v. Q1, OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95, Ptrend = 0·011) were associated with a decreased odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women. Whereas high fat-grain dietary pattern showed a U-shaped association with pre-eclampsia, the lowest OR was observed in the third quartile (Q3 v. Q1, OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·98, Ptrend = 0·111). No significant association was observed for high salt-sugar dietary pattern. In conclusion, pregnancy dietary pattern characterised by high fruit-vegetable or high protein was found to be associated with a reduced odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women.
Prior research has suggested that sitting on the board of a poorly performing firm (PPF) can be undesirable to directors. Still, almost 60% of such firms are able to appoint new directors following director departures. Contrary to a quality matching explanation, we do not find that only poorly performing directors join these firms. Upon joining PPFs, directors are more likely to fill leadership positions without necessarily receiving higher pay. These directors subsequently receive career benefits, especially those who are relatively junior in the pool. As such, the evidence is consistent with the leadership positions providing a certification effect.
We characterized the proteome profile of mid-lactation small-tailed Han (STH) and DairyMeade (DM) ovine milk in order to explore physiological variation and differences in milk traits between the two breeds. Methodology combined a tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic approach with LC-MS/MS technology. A total of 656 proteins were identified in STH and DM ovine milk, of which 17and 29 proteins were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) in STH and DM, respectively. Immune-related proteins and disease-related proteins were highly expressed in STH milk, whereas S100A2 and AEBP1 were highly expressed in DM milk, which had beneficial effects on mammary gland development and milk yield. Our results provide a theoretical basis for future breeding of dairy sheep.
Packing topological entropy is a dynamical analogy of the packing dimension, which can be viewed as a counterpart of Bowen topological entropy. In the present paper we give a systematic study of the packing topological entropy for a continuous G-action dynamical system
, where X is a compact metric space and G is a countable infinite discrete amenable group. We first prove a variational principle for amenable packing topological entropy: for any Borel subset Z of X, the packing topological entropy of Z equals the supremum of upper local entropy over all Borel probability measures for which the subset Z has full measure. Then we obtain an entropy inequality concerning amenable packing entropy. Finally, we show that the packing topological entropy of the set of generic points for any invariant Borel probability measure
coincides with the metric entropy if either
is ergodic or the system satisfies a kind of specification property.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
The density–depth relationship of the Antarctic ice sheet is important for establishing a high-precision surface mass balance model and predicting future ice-sheet contributions to global sea levels. A new algorithm is used to reconstruct firn density and densification rate by inverting monostatic radio wave echoes from ground-operated frequency-modulated continuous wave radar data collected near four ice cores along the transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A. The inverted density profile is consistent with the core data within 5.54% root mean square error. Due to snow redistribution, the densification rate within 88 km of ice core DT401 is correlated with the accumulation rate and varies greatly over horizontal distances of <5 km. That is, the depth at which a critical density of 830 kg m−3 is reached decreases and densification rate increases in high-accumulation regions but decreases in low-accumulation regions. This inversion technique can be used to analyse more Antarctic radar data and obtain the density distribution trend, which can improve the accuracy of mass-balance estimations.
We have previously bred Chinese local dairy sheep through grading up with local Small-Tailed Han (STH) sheep as female parent and DairyMeade (DM) sheep as male parent. In this research communication we characterize the whey protein profile of STH sheep and their offspring (F1, F2) to reveal physiological differences and variation in milk traits. A total of 1032 whey proteins were identified through tandem mass tag labeling (TMT) proteome profiling. Three proteins were significantly differentially abundant between F1 and STH milk, six between F2 and STH milk and five between F1 and F2 milk. In terms of differential changes between generations, WASHC4 and CUTA of F1 and Ig-like domain-containing protein of F2 milk were dominant whey proteins. Overall, the results showed that the whey protein profiles of different generations varied little. The crossbreeds of STH and DM sheep would be suitable for the development of the Chinese local sheep milk industry, and the F2 may be a better population for sheep milk production.
Entropy dimension is an entropy-type quantity which takes values in
and classifies different levels of intermediate growth rate of complexity for dynamical systems. In this paper, we consider the complexity of skew products of irrational rotations with Bernoulli systems, which can be viewed as deterministic walks in random sceneries, and show that this class of models can have any given entropy dimension by choosing suitable rotations for the base system.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population.
Information on spicy food flavour and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data were collected using a validated thirteen-item FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavour and intake frequency, respectively.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
38 238 participants aged 18–79 years old.
Spicy flavour and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and non-HDL-cholesterol levels but mildly associated with elevated TAG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavour was inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·88, 0·93) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·88; 95 % CI 0·85, 0·91) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07). Similarly, 1-d increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·94) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·93) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·06).
Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TAG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
Grain-filling, as the final growth stage of rice, is sensitive to environmental temperature change. Previous studies mainly concerned about the effects of high temperature stress during grain-filling on rice growth, and most experiments were carried out with pot for cultivating rice and greenhouse for warming. This research investigated the response of rice grain-filling of superior spikelets (SS) and inferior spikelets (IS) of two japonica cultivars to elevated temperature during grain-filling stage under open-field warming conditions in lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin using free-air temperature enhancement facility. Results indicated that rice yield was not significantly changed by warming less than 4°C. SS and IS showed different responses to elevated temperature during the grain-filling stage, whereas there were similar trends between two cultivars and years. For SS, although elevated temperature enhanced its filling rate during the early grain-filling period, and caused a shorter grain-filling period and a lighter grain weight; for IS, elevated temperature improved its grain weight by enhancing its filling rate during middle and late grain-filling period due to the increased number of days with suitable temperature. For both SS and IS, key starch biosynthesis enzymes and indole-3-acetic acid content exhibited generally a similar dynamics trend with grain-filling rates, and these sink strength parameters presented higher levels under elevated temperature relative to natural temperature for IS during middle and late grain-filling period. Consequently, warming less than 4°C presented different influences on SS and IS; the improvement of IS filling under warming regime was associated with the intensification of grain sink strength.
Andrena camellia Wu is one of the primary pollinators of Camellia oleifera A. in China. In this paper, the essential number of individuals for efficient pollination by this species was calculated via two criteria, based on various indicators including counts of pollen grains in provisions, from single visits, and from single foraging trips overall; single flower visit duration; single flight period duration; number of eggs laid by a single female over their lifetime; and the average number of flowers per plant. Based on the number of pollen grains collected per flower visit, the essential number of females necessary is 2107 in a 1-ha Camellia oleifera garden with 1800 plants, while only 1998 female individuals are essentially needed when estimated based on the mean number of pollen grains collected in a single flight period. We argue that the essential number estimated by the former method is more reasonable and accurate for practical applications.