Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a relatively new concept, encompassing all forms of cognitive loss associated with cerebrovascular disease and ischaemic brain injury. It covers a broad spectrum of pathologies within the brain, with different causes and clinical presentations. VCI includes vascular cognitive dementia, (VaD). VCI also encompasses mixed (AD and vascular dementia) as well as hereditary disorders. Table 1 shows the main subtypes of VCI.