Synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to depolarizing bipolar cells is mediated by the APB glutamate receptor. This receptor apparently is coupled to a G-protein which activates cGMP-phosphodiesterase to modulate cGMP levels and thus a cGMP-gated cation channel. We attempted to localize this system immunocytochemically using antibodies to various components of the rod phototransduction cascade, including Gt (transducin), phosphodiesterase, the cGMP-gated channel, and arrestin. All of these antibodies reacted strongly with rods, but none reacted with bipolar cells. Antibodies to a different G-protein, Go, reacted strongly with rod bipolar cells of three mammalian species (which are depolarizing and APB-sensitive). Also stained were subpopulations of cone bipolar cells but not the major depolarizing type in cat (b1). Go antibody also stained certain salamander bipolar cells. Thus, across a wide range of species, Go is present in retinal bipolar cells, and at least some of these are depolarizing and APB-sensitive.