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Using ethanol adsorption calorimetry, the surface energetics of two carbon substrates and two products in microwave-assisted carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. In this study, the ethanol adsorption enthalpies of the two graphene-based samples at 25 °C were measured successfully. Specifically, the near-zero differential enthalpies of ethanol adsorption are −75.7 kJ/mol for graphene and −63.4 kJ/mol for CNT-grafted graphene. Subsequently, the differential enthalpy curve of each sample becomes less exothermic until reaching a plateau, −55.8 kJ/mol for graphene and −49.7 kJ/mol for CNT-grafted graphene, suggesting favorable adsorbate–adsorbent binding. Moreover, the authors interpreted and discussed the partial molar entropy and chemical potential of adsorption as the ethanol surface coverage (loading) increases. Due to the low surface areas of carbon black–based samples, adsorption calorimetry could not be performed. This model study demonstrates that using adsorption calorimetry as a fundamental tool and ethanol as the molecular probe, the overall surface energetics of high–surface area carbon materials can be estimated.
We present an experimental study of the reversal of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in quasi-two-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. It is found that there exists a transition in the Rayleigh number (
) dependence of the reversal rate
with two distinct scalings: for
less than a transitional value
, the non-dimensionalized reversal rate
; however, for higher
the scaling changes to
is the turnover time of the LSC. Flow visualization shows that this regime transition originates from a change in flow topology from a single-roll state to a new, less stable, abnormal single-roll state with substructures inside the single roll. The emergence of the substructures inside the LSC lowers the energy barrier for the flow reversals to occur and leads to a slower decay of
. Detailed analysis reveals that, although it is the corner rolls that trigger the reversal event, the probability for the occurrence of reversals mainly depends on the stability of the LSC. This is supported by a model we proposed to predict the critical condition for the transition, which agrees well with the experimental results.
Bearded sprangletop [Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) P. M. Peterson & N. Snow] is a noxious annual grass weed of paddy fields, distributed in coastal regions of the Jiangsu and Hebei provinces in China. Cyhalofop-butyl has been widely used to control grass weeds since 2006 in China. Overreliance on cyhalofop-butyl has led to the evolution of resistant weeds. In this study, the resistance level and cyhalofop-butyl resistance mechanisms were investigated in the putative resistant (JSHH) population. The dose–response experiments showed that the JSHH D. fusca population had evolved 8.9-fold resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) sequencing revealed a point mutation (GGC to GCC) at amino acid position 2096, resulting in a Gly-2096-Ala substitution in the resistant population. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cyhalofop-butyl resistance in D. fusca and the first report of a target-site mutation conferring resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in D. fusca. In addition, the resistant D. fusca population (JSHH) with the Gly-2096-Ala mutation was cross-resistant to the aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide metamifop, the cyclohexanedione herbicide sethoxydim, and the phenylpyrazolin herbicide pinoxaden.
The present epidemiological study aimed to evaluate the association of serum electrolyte levels with hypertension in a population with a high-salt diet.
Secondary analysis of epidemiology data from the Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study conducted in 2012–2013. Blood pressure and hypertension status were analysed for association with serum sodium, potassium, chloride, total calcium, phosphate and magnesium levels using regression models.
High-salt diet, rural China.
Adult residents in Liaoning, China.
In total 10 555 participants were included, of whom 3287 had incident hypertension (IH) and 1655 had previously diagnosed hypertension (PDH). Fifty-six per cent of participants had electrolyte disturbance. Sixty-two per cent of hypercalcaemic participants had hypertension, followed by hypokalaemia (56 %) and hypernatraemia (54 %). Only hypercalcaemia showed significant associations with both IH (OR=1·70) and PDH (OR=2·25). Highest serum calcium quartile had higher odds of IH (OR=1·58) and PDH (OR=1·64) than the lowest quartile. Serum sodium had no significant correlation with hypertension. Serum potassium had a U-shaped trend with PDH. Highest chloride quartile had lower odds of PDH than the lowest chloride quartile (OR=0·65). Highest phosphate quartile was only associated with lower odds of IH (OR=0·75), and the higher magnesium group had significantly lower odds of IH (OR=0·86) and PDH (OR=0·77).
We have shown the association of serum calcium, magnesium and chloride levels with IH and/or PDH. In the clinical setting, patients with IH may have concurrent electrolyte disturbances, such as hypercalcaemia, that may indicate other underlying aetiologies.
Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.) is a problematic dicot weed that occurs in major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields in China. Tribenuron-methyl has been widely used to control broadleaf weeds since 1988 in China. However, overuse has led to the resistance evolution of G. aparine to tribenuron-methyl. In this study, 20 G. aparine populations collected from Shandong and Henan provinces were used to determine tribenuron-methyl resistance and target-site resistance mechanisms. In dose–response experiments, 12 G. aparine populations showed different resistance levels (2.92 to 842.41-fold) to tribenuron-methyl compared with the susceptible population. Five different acetolactate synthase (ALS) mutations (Pro-197-Leu, Pro-197-Ser, Pro-197-His, Asp-376-Glu, and Trp-574-Leu) were detected in different resistant populations. Individuals heterozygous for Pro-197-Ser and Trp-574-Leu mutations were also observed in a resistant population (HN6). In addition, pHB4 (Pro-197-Ser), pHB7 (Pro-197-His), pHB8 (Pro-197-Leu), pHB5 (Asp-376-Glu), and pHB3 (Trp-574-Leu) subpopulations individually homozygous for specific ALS mutations were generated to evaluate the cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The pHB4, pHB7, pHB8, pHB5, and pHB3 subpopulations all were resistant to sulfonylurea, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, triazolopyrimidine, flumetsulam, sulfonylamino-carbonyl-triazolinone, flucarbazone-sodium, pyrimidinyl thiobenzoate, pyribenzoxim, and the imidazolinone imazethapyr. These results indicated the diversity of the resistance-conferring ALS mutations in G. aparine, and all these mutations resulted in broad cross-resistance to five kinds of ALS-inhibiting herbicides.
The overuse of antibiotics and the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance prompted the launch of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in 2011. This study aimed to investigate the trends and correlations between antibiotic consumption and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital of northwest China from 2010 to 2016. Trends were analysed by linear regression, and correlations were assessed by an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The total consumption of antibiotics halved during the 7-year study period, while the rates of resistance of S. aureus decreased significantly or remained stable; methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) declined markedly, from 73.3% at the beginning of the study to 41.4% by the end. This latter decrease was significantly correlated with the consumption of several classes of antibiotics. In conclusion, reduction in antibiotic use impacted significantly on resistance rates and contributed to a decline in MRSA prevalence.
Several epidemiological studies have investigated that Na or K intakes might be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little evidence has evaluated the association between Na:K ratio and the MetS. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary Na:K ratio and the MetS. The cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 18 years and older in Nanjing, using a multi-stage random sampling method, which resulted in a sample size of 1993 participants. Dietary Na and K intakes were assessed by 3 consecutive days of dietary recollection combined with condiments weighing method. Health-related data were obtained by standardised questionnaires, as well as physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The prevalence rate of the MetS was 36·5 % (728/1993). After adjusting for various lifestyle and dietary factors of the MetS, participants in the highest quartile of dietary Na:K ratio were at a higher risk of developing MetS (OR=1·602; 95 % CI 1·090, 2·353) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Each 1-sd increase in dietary Na:K ratio was associated with a higher risk of prevalent MetS (OR=1·166; 95 % CI: 1·018, 1·336). Among the components of the MetS, dietary Na:K ratio was positively associated with high blood pressure (quartile 3 v. quartile 1: OR=1·656; 95 % CI 1·228, 2·256) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (quartile 4 v. quartile1: OR=1·305; 95 % CI 1·029, 1·655) in multivariate analysis. These results revealed that higher dietary Na:K ratio significantly increased the risk of the MetS in Chinese adults. Further studies are needed to verify this association.
Volumetric expansion driven drainage flow of a viscous compressible fluid from a small capillary with a sealed end is studied in the low Mach number limit using the linearized compressible Navier–Stokes equations with no-slip condition. Density relaxation, oscillation and decay as well as the velocity field are investigated in detail. It is shown that fluid drainage is controlled by the slow decay of the standing acoustic wave inside the capillary; and the acoustic wave retards the density diffusion by reducing the diffusion coefficient of the density envelope equation by one half. Remarkably the no-slip flow exhibits a slip-like mass flow rate. The period-averaged mass flow rate at the exit (drainage rate) is found proportional to the fluid’s kinematic viscosity via the density diffusion coefficient and the average drainage speed is independent of the capillary radius. These findings are valid for arbitrarily small capillaries as long as the continuum assumption holds and they are in stark contrast to the classical lubrication based theory. Generalization to a capillary with a sound absorbing end is achieved by a simple model. The reported results offer new insights to the nature of slow viscous compressible flows in very small capillaries.
Despite several therapeutic options existing for the patients with type I diabetes, the patients are still at high risk for severe acute and chronic complications (1). Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy to achieve good glycemic control with no or little additional insulin (2). This study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, economics and social ethics of islet transplantation (IT) for the patients with type I diabetes.
We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI and CBM to retrieve eligible literatures. The values of H1bAc before and after transplantation, the rates of insulin independence and functional islet graft at the last follow-up, and the insulin dose per patient-day were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, t tests and random effects meta-analyses were used in the study.
Totally 21 original papers with 488 cases from 9 different countries were reviewed and analyzed. The studies showed that the H1bAc was decreased from 7.7 percent (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI: 7.4, 8.1) before IT to 6.2 percent (95 percent CI: 5.9, 6.4) after IT. At the last follow-up, the rate of insulin independence was 48.96 percent (95 percent CI: 31.32, 66.73) and the rate of functional islet graft was 65.79 percent (95 percent CI: 47.06, 82.21). The daily insulin requirement dropped from 0.52U/kg/d to 0.21 U/kg/d. The main adverse events of islet transplantation were bleeding (7.01 percent) and the complications related to immunosuppression therapy (6.37 percent), but they were less than those of whole pancreas transplantation.
Another study with a 20-year follow-up also showed that the cost-effectiveness of islet transplantation (USD47,800 per QALY) was better than that of insulin therapy (USD71,000 per QALY). In spite of the better evidences of islet transplantation, the insufficient organ donation and issues of cell purification and immunological rejection limited islet transplantation's widespread utilization (1).
The islet transplantation therapy for the patients with type I diabetes has a potential to achieve insulin independence and better cost-effectiveness, and is relatively safe. But there are some obstacles for its wide utilization.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Given a non-negative integer n and a complete hereditary cotorsion triple , the notion of subcategories in an abelian category is introduced. It is proved that a virtually Gorenstein ring R is n-Gorenstein if and only if the subcategory of Gorenstein injective R-modules is with respect to the cotorsion triple , where stands for the subcategory of Gorenstein projectives. In the case when a subcategory of is closed under direct summands such that each object in admits a right -approximation, a Bazzoni characterization is given for to be . Finally, an Auslander–Reiten correspondence is established between the class of subcategories and that of certain subcategories of which are -coresolving covariantly finite and closed under direct summands.
Flapping and revolving wings can produce attached leading-edge vortices when the angle of attack is large. In this work, a low-order model is proposed for the edge vortices that develop on a revolving plate at
angle of attack, which is the simplest limiting case, yet shows remarkable similarity with the generally known leading-edge vortices. The problem is solved analytically, providing short closed-form expressions for the circulation and the position of the vortex. The good agreement with the numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations suggests that, for the conditions examined, the vorticity production at the sharp edge and its subsequent three-dimensional transport are the main effects that shape the edge vortex.
The TiO2 hollow spheres (TiO2HS) were successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method and added to Vulcan XC-72 carbon black as the support materials for Pd nanoparticles. A facile approach to promote ethylene glycol (EG) electrooxidation in alkaline medium was carried out by the PdBi/TiO2HS-C catalyst. The results show that Pd and Bi nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of carbon-doped TiO2 hollow spheres, the appropriate amount of Bi modification into Pd/TiO2HS-C catalyst can enhance remarkably the electrocatalytic activity for EG oxidation, in which the PdBi/TiO2HS-C (Pd:Bi = 1:0.1) catalyst exhibits excellent stability. The high electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique structure and high surface area of the TiO2HS, metal nanoparticles uniform distribution, the electronic effect between Pd and Bi as well as the bifunctional effect between metal nanoparticles and the support TiO2HS-C. The results obtained are significant for the development of new Pd-based TiO2HS-C electrocatalysts for alcohol fuel cells.
Characteristics of laboratory-scale bubble-driven buoyant plumes in a stably stratified quiescent fluid are studied using large-eddy simulation (LES). As a bubble plume entrains stratified ambient water, its net buoyancy decreases due to the increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient fluids. A large fraction of the entrained fluid eventually detrains and falls along an annular outer plume from a height of maximum rise (peel height) to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), during which less buoyant scalars (e.g. small droplets) are trapped and dispersed horizontally, forming quasi-horizontal intrusion layers. The inner/outer double-plume structure and the peel/intrusion process are found to be more distinct for cases with small bubble rise velocity, while weak and unstable when the slip velocity is large. LES results are averaged to generate distributions of mean velocity and turbulent fluxes. These distributions provide data for assessing the performance of previously developed closures used in one-dimensional integral plume models. In particular, the various LES cases considered in this study yield consistent behaviour for the entrainment coefficients for various plume cases. Furthermore, a new continuous peeling model is derived based on the insights obtained from LES results. Comparing to previous peeling models, the new model behaves in a more self-consistent manner, and it is expected to provide more reliable performance when applied in integral plume models.
Autophagy process in Toxoplasma gondii plays a vital role in regulating parasite survival or death. Thus, once having an understanding of certain effects of autophagy on the transformation of tachyzoite to bradyzoite this will allow us to elucidate the function of autophagy during parasite development. Herein, we used three TgAtg proteins involved in Atg8 conjugation system, TgAtg3, TgAtg7 and TgAtg8 to evaluate the autophagy level in tachyzoite and bradyzoite of Toxoplasma in vitro based on Pru TgAtg7-HA transgenic strains. We showed that both TgAtg3 and TgAtg8 were expressed at a significantly lower level in bradyzoites than in tachyzoites. Importantly, the number of parasites containing fluorescence-labelled TgAtg8 puncta was significantly reduced in bradyzoites than in tachyzoites, suggesting that autophagy is downregulated in Toxoplasma bradyzoite in vitro. Moreover, after treatment with drugs, bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 levels decreased significantly in rapamycin-treated bradyzoites and increased significantly in 3-MA-treated bradyzoites in comparison with control bradyzoites, indicating that Toxoplasma autophagy is involved in the transformation of tachyzoite to bradyzoite in vitro. Together, it is suggested that autophagy may serve as a potential strategy to regulate the transformation.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.