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Wind-driven snow redistribution can increase the spatial heterogeneity of snow accumulation on ice caps and ice sheets, and may prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers in areas of marginal glaciation. We present a snowdrift model (Snow_Blow), which extends and improves the model of Purves, Mackaness and Sugden (1999, Journal of Quaternary Science 14, 313–321). The model calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography, using a digital elevation model (DEM) and wind direction as inputs. Improvements include snow redistribution using a flux routing algorithm, DEM resolution independence and the addition of a slope curvature component. This paper tests Snow_Blow in Antarctica (a modern environment) and reveals its potential for application in palaeoenvironmental settings, where input meteorological data are unavailable and difficult to estimate. Specifically, Snow_Blow is applied to the Ellsworth Mountains in West Antarctica where ablation is considered to be predominantly related to wind erosion processes. We find that Snow_Blow is able to replicate well the existing distribution of accumulating snow and snow erosion as recorded in and around Blue Ice Areas. Lastly, a variety of model parameters are tested, including depositional distance and erosion vs wind speed, to provide the most likely input parameters for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
Let N be a finite set of n elements. A collection ﹛S1, S2, … , Sm﹜ of subsets of N is called a determining collection if an arbitrary subset T of N is uniquely determined by the cardinalities of the intersections Si ⋂ T, 1 ≤ i ≤ m. The purpose of this paper is to study the minimum value D(n) of m for which a determining collection of m subsets exists.
This problem can be expressed as a coin-weighing problem (1; 7).
In a recent paper Cantor (1) showed that D(n) = O(n/log log n), thus proving a conjecture of N. J. Fine (3) that D(n) = o(n). More recently Erdös and Rényi (2), Söderberg and Shapiro (7), Berlekamp, Mills, and Leo Moser have independently found proofs that D(n) = O(n/log n).
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
Motivated by growing concern as to the many threats that islands face, subsequent calls for more extensive island nature conservation and recent discussion in the conservation literature about the potential for wellbeing as a useful approach to understanding how conservation affects people's lives, this paper reviews the literature in order to explore how islands and wellbeing relate and how conservation might impact that relationship. We apply a three-dimensional concept of social wellbeing to structure the discussion and illustrate the importance of understanding island–wellbeing interactions in the context of material, relational and subjective dimensions, using examples from the literature. We posit that islands and their shared characteristics of ‘islandness’ provide a useful setting in which to apply social wellbeing as a generalizable framework, which is particularly adept at illuminating the relevance of social relationships and subjective perceptions in island life – aspects that are often marginalized in more economically focused conservation impact assessments. The paper then explores in more depth the influences of island nature conservation on social wellbeing and sustainability outcomes using two case studies from the global north (UK islands) and global south (the Solomon Islands). We conclude that conservation approaches that engage with all three dimensions of wellbeing seem to be associated with success.
Mechanistic research suggests a unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were recently identified as structurally and functionally similar to human milk oligosaccharides. The present single-blind three-way crossover study is the first to determine the safety and tolerability of BMO consumption by healthy human participants (n 12) and its effects on faecal microbiota and microbial metabolism. Participants consumed each supplement (placebo-control; low- and high-BMO doses) for eleven consecutive days, followed by a 2-week washout period prior to initiating the next supplement arm. Low and high BMO doses were consumed as 25 and 35 % of each individual's daily fibre intake, respectively. Safety and tolerability were measured using standardised questionnaires on gut and stomach discomfort and stool consistency. Faecal extracts were profiled for bacterial populations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bifidobacteria presence was confirmed using quantitative PCR. Urine was analysed for changes in microbial metabolism using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). Consumption of both the low and high BMO doses was well tolerated and did not change stool consistency from baseline. Multivariate analysis of the NGS results demonstrated no change in faecal microbiota phyla among the placebo-control and BMO supplement groups. In conclusion, BMO supplementation was well tolerated in healthy adults and has the potential to shift faecal microbiota toward beneficial strains as part of a synbiotic treatment with probiotic cultures that selectively metabolise oligosaccharides.
Théodore de Bèze wrote Abraham Sacrifiant in 1550 at the request of the authorities of the University of Lausanne for his students to present at the Presentation Day. He had been appointed Professor of Greek there after his arrival in Geneva in 1548. In 1575 it was translated into English by Arthur Golding, a writer who was already well known and highly regarded for his translations of classical texts, in particular of Ovid's Metamorphoses, but, as a Puritan, he was also interested in and translated the work of earlier Puritan writers like Calvin and de Bèze. His translation of de Bèze's play was published in 1577 by Thomas Vautroullier in Blackfriars, London. Surprisingly, perhaps, given the popularity of de Bèze's play in France, the English translation attracted little interest in England and we have no record of a performance.
In his letter ‘To the Reader’ dated ‘From Lausan the first of October 1550’, which precedes the Prologue, de Bèze begins by reflecting on
two thinges that comforted me maruelously. The one is the infinite number of promises vttered by the mouth of him which is the truth it selfe, whose sayinges are alwayes matched with effect. The other is the multitude of examples, whereof euen the least are able enough, not only to encourage and harten the weakest & faintest harted in the worlde, but also to make them inuincible.
3: 8–4: 41
He lists the three men he regards as God's ‘greatest wonders’, the first of whom is Abraham. He then goes on to regret his waste of the talent for poetry which God gave him in his imitations of other writers and cutting epigrams which hurt both ways. On his conversion he resolved to reorientate his life by translating holy books, especially the Psalms — both a penance and a devotion. Of more interest perhaps to us today are his following comments on form and style, first on the genre of what he has written about Abraham and Isaac, where he concludes that it is equally balanced between comedy and tragedy:
But to come to the matter that I haue in hand, it is partly tragical and partly comicall: & therefore I haue separated the prologue, & diuided the whole into pawses, after the maner of actes in comedies, howbeit without binding of my self therto.
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.
The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26·5 (sem 6·9) years and BMI 21·9 (sem 2·0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0·05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.
The goals of these experiments were to describe the morphology and synaptic
connections of amacrine cells in the baboon retina that contain immunoreactive
vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGluT3). These amacrine cells had the
morphology characteristic of knotty bistratified type 1 cells, and their
dendrites formed two plexuses on either side of the center of the inner
plexiform layer. The primary dendrites received large synapses from amacrine
cells, and the higher-order dendrites were both pre- and postsynaptic to other
amacrine cells. Based on light microscopic immunolabeling results, these include
AII cells and starburst cells, but not the polyaxonal amacrine cells
tracer-coupled to ON parasol ganglion cells. The vGluT3 cells received input
from ON bipolar cells at ribbon synapses and made synapses onto OFF bipolar
cells, including the diffuse DB3a type. Many synapses from vGluT3 cells onto
retinal ganglion cells were observed in both plexuses. At synapses where vGluT3
cells were presynaptic, two types of postsynaptic densities were observed; there
were relatively thin ones characteristic of inhibitory synapses and relatively
thick ones characteristic of excitatory synapses. In the light microscopic
experiments with Neurobiotin-injected ganglion cells, vGluT3 cells made contacts
with midget and parasol ganglion cells, including both ON and OFF types. Puncta
containing immunoreactive gephyrin, an inhibitory synapse marker, were found at
appositions between vGluT3 cells and each of the four types of labeled ganglion
cells. The vGluT3 cells did not have detectable levels of immunoreactive
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or immunoreactive glycine transporter 1.
Thus, the vGluT3 cells would be expected to have ON responses to light and make
synapses onto neurons in both the ON and the OFF pathways. Taken with previous
results, these findings suggest that vGluT3 cells release glycine at some of
their output synapses and glutamate at others.
In all of the mammalian species studied to date, the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and the S-cone bipolar cells that receive their input are very similar, but the retinal ganglion cells that receive synapses from the S-cone bipolar cells appear to be quite different. Here, we review the literature on mammalian retinal ganglion cells that respond selectively to stimulation of S-cones and respond with opposite polarity to longer wavelength stimuli. There are at least three basic mechanisms to generate these color-opponent responses, including: (1) opponency is generated in the outer plexiform layer by horizontal cells and is conveyed to the ganglion cells via S-cone bipolar cells, (2) inputs from bipolar cells with different cone inputs and opposite response polarity converge directly on the ganglion cells, and (3) inputs from S-cone bipolar cells are inverted by S-cone amacrine cells. These are not mutually exclusive; some mammalian ganglion cells that respond selectively to S-cone stimulation seem to utilize at least two of them. Based on these findings, we suggest that the small bistratified ganglion cells described in primates are not the ancestral type, as proposed previously. Instead, the known types of ganglion cells in this pathway evolved from monostratified ancestral types and became bistratified in some mammalian lineages.
Issues in the public presentation and interpretation of the archaeology of Hadrian's Wall and other frontiers of the Roman Empire are explored and addressed here. A central theme is the need for interpretation to be people-focussed, and for visitors to be engaged through narratives and approaches which help them connect with figures in the past: daily life, relationships, craft skills, communications, resonances with modern frontiers and modern issues all provide means of helping an audience to connect, delivering a greater understanding, better visitor experiences, increased visiting and spend, and an enhanced awareness of the need to protect and conserve our heritage. Topics covered include re-enactment, virtual and physical reconstruction, multi-media, smartphones, interpretation planning and design; while new evidence from audience research is also presented to show how visitors respond to different strategies of engagement. Nigel Mills is Director, World Heritage and Access, The Hadrian's Wall Trust. Contributors: Genevieve Adkins, M.C. Bishop, Lucie Branczik, David J. Breeze, Mike Corbishley, Jim Devine, Erik Dobat, Matthias Flück, Christof Flügel, Snezana Golubovic, Susan Greaney, Tom Hazenberg, Don Henson, Richard Hingley, Nicky Holmes, Martin Kemkes, Miomir Korac, Michaela Kronberger, Nigel Mills, Jürgen Obmann, Tim Padley, John Scott, R. Michael Spearman, Jürgen Trumm, Sandra Walkshofer, Christopher Young.