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Anger has been closely related to risky behavior, and this last has been related to road accidents. The current research aimed to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire to measure anger in pedestrians (n = 550, 40.73% male) of a wide age rage (14–65 years, M = 27.91, SD = 13.21). The Parallel Analysis showed that the 15 items of the Pedestrian Anger Scale fitted satisfactorily in a four-factor solution: Anger because of obstructions or slowdowns caused by other pedestrians (α = .79), Anger because of hostility from drivers (α = .64), Anger because of bad conditions of the infrastructure (α = .62), and Anger because of dangerous situations caused by vehicles (α = .71). The global scale had also a good internal consistency (α = .83). Further analyses suggested convergent, divergent and incremental validity by correlating the global score of the questionnaire with both risk and anger measures. Middle-aged people (19–30 years) scored higher in anger as pedestrians than eldest (> 45 years), η2 = .02, but no significant effect were obtained by gender. Practical implications from both clinical and road safety viewpoints are discussed, and both future research proposals and limitations of the current study are also commented.
Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.
The pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea is known to be a frequent by-catch in longline fisheries worldwide. This study analysed the eco-geographic, technical and temporal parameters that affect pelagic stingray by-catch by the Spanish surface drifting longline fleet that operates in the Mediterranean Sea. Between 2000 and 2013, 3007 longline fishing operations were monitored. Over this period, we recorded 57 574 pelagic stingray by-catches by this fleet. Two gear types were involved in 96.05% of the pelagic stingray by-catch observed: traditional surface longliners targeting swordfish (LLHB) and surface drifting longliners targeting albacore (LLALB). We obtained two statistically significant explanatory models for the two types of gear. In both cases, two of the most important variables were fisheries being sited over the continental shelf and fishing during the summer season. The LLHB explanatory model included the following variables: number of hooks, latitude where setting started, distance between the ends of the longline, and the spring season. Regarding the LLHB, we found an association between the Capture per Unit Effort of pelagic stingray from favourable sets per year and the North Atlantic Oscillation in the previous year.
Thunnus alalunga is an important commercial tuna species widely distributed in the three major oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean population is currently classified as a data-poor stock and little is known about its basic life history parameters. This study provides the first detailed information on some aspects of the reproductive biology of T. alalunga from the western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 16 104 specimens were measured between 2005 and 2012. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1.1:1, although the ratio was female biased in fish <70 cm fork length (LF) and male biased in those >75 cm LF. Histological analysis of the ovaries (N = 587) and the monthly variation of the gonadosomatic index for both sexes showed that spawning occurred from June to August, which is a much shorter period than the 7 months reported for T. alalunga in tropical oceanic waters. Thunnus alalunga caught during June and July are capable of spawning daily. The gonadosomatic index values for T. alalunga from the western Mediterranean were up to eight times higher than those of T. alalunga from other oceans. Histological examination of the ovaries showed that the minimum length at sexual maturity of females was 56 cm LF, which is considerably smaller than those estimated for other stocks.
Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose.
We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline.
Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB.
Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.
Material adverse change (MAC) clauses are a ubiquitous feature of acquisitions and exhibit substantial cross-sectional variation in the number and types of events that are excluded from being material adverse events (MAEs). MAEs are the underlying cause of 69% ofacquisition terminations and 80% of renegotiations. These renegotiations lead to substantial changes in the price offered to target shareholders. Acquisitions with fewer MAE exclusions are characterized by wider arbitrage spreads during the acquisition period and are associated with higher offer premiums. We conclude that MAC clauses have an economically important impact on the dynamics of corporate acquisitions.
Fisheries by-catch is considered to be a major threat to loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea. Technical differences in both gear configurations (e.g. hook and bait type) and fisheries operations carried out by the Spanish Mediterranean surface longline fleet could have an effect on by-catch rates and size selectivity. The aim of the present study was to test the differences in by-catch per unit effort and body size of loggerhead sea turtles caught using different gear types in the Mediterranean surface longline fishery. Our results suggest that differences in the gear type used have an effect on catch rates and size selectivity. Thus, surface longliners targeting albacore (LLALB) using smaller hooks tend to capture smaller loggerheads but have the highest by-catch per unit of effort (BPUE), whereas other longlines, such as surface longliners targeting bluefin tuna (LLJAP) and traditional surface longliners targeting swordfish (LLHB), using larger hooks tend to select the larger animals; moreover, LLHB had the lowest BPUE. Disproportionate rates of fisheries-induced mortality on certain size/age-classes can differentially affect sea turtle populations, as each sea turtle age-class contributes differently to current and future reproduction. Thus, fisheries management should not only be focusing on preserving the large juvenile and mature turtles, but also on reducing the total by-catch. Thus, we recommend encouraging the use of LLHB versus other surface gears. We suggest that it is very important to take into account the gear type (and its particular catch rates) when making inferences about the impact of longline fisheries on sea turtle populations.
Two species in the genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol (monochamol), suggesting that other congeners may share the same pheromone. We tested that hypothesis by conducting field bioassays of monochamol, in combination with bark-beetle pheromones and the host plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator (LeConte), 63 Monochamus obtusus Casey, 245 Monochamus scutellatus (Say) (tribe Monochamini), and 42 Acanthocinus princeps (Walker) (tribe Acanthocinini). All three Monochamus species were significantly attracted to the combination of monochamol and host plant volatiles, whereas bark-beetle pheromones plus plant volatiles and plant volatiles alone were minimally attractive. Adding bark-beetle pheromones to the monochamol plus plant volatiles treatment synergised attraction of M. clamator, but not the other two Monochamus species. Acanthocinus princeps was most strongly attracted to the combination of bark-beetle pheromones and plant volatiles, and did not appear to be affected by the presence or absence of monochamol in baits. We conclude that monochamol is a likely pheromone component for the three Monochamus species, and that monochamol plus host plant volatiles is an effective attractant for these and perhaps other North American Monochamus species.
The western Mediterranean is an important fishing area in which the Spanish longline fleet operates. Longline fisheries affect several species of marine mammals, sea turtles, sharks and seabirds, all of which are especially sensitive to fishing mortality. Given international efforts to identify and reduce the bycatch of sensitive species, an onboard observer program was implemented by the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO, Instituto Español de Oceanografía). The aim of the present study was to report data on marine mammal bycatch in the western Mediterranean. The additional aim was to improve knowledge about the possible effects of the Spanish longline fisheries on cetacean populations, particularly Risso’s dolphin, and to suggest improvements to fisheries management. Data on marine mammal bycatch were collected during the period 2000–2009. Differences are reported for catch per unit effort (CPUE, defined as marine mammals per 1000 hooks) for each type of gear (n = 7), as well as their effect on specific marine mammal species. A total of 5 398 297 hooks were monitored, which yielded 56 marine mammals belonging to 4 different species. Our results indicate that Risso’s dolphin is the species most affected by the longline fishery in the western Mediterranean (n = 33). We built a predictive model for Risso’s dolphin bycatch using variables associated with the technical characteristics of the fishery, geographic location and seasonality. We performed a binary logistic regression of the presence/absence of Risso’s dolphin bycatch to test whether the probability of incidentally catching one or more dolphins may be predicted by some of the explanatory variables selected. Our results indicate that Risso’s dolphin was mainly caught using Japanese longline (LLJAP) or an experimental home-based longline (LLHBexp) over the continental shelf. Because LLHBexp is an experimental type of gear that was only used occasionally by the fleet, controlling the use of LLJAP over the continental shelf could strongly reduce the impact of these fisheries on populations of Risso’s dolphin in the western Mediterranean.
Phonons and crystalline structures of Hg1−xCdxSe alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction patterns at 298K. The crystalline alloys were prepared by a special combination of synthesis and the Bridgman method. Experimental data showed a face-centered cubic structure, (No. 216), for all samples, exhibiting a linear dependence for Cd molar fraction, x, for cell parameters, a, and the mass densities, ρ. Phonon frequencies were analyzed using the Romevi-Romevi model for phonons in multicomponent alloys, obtaining a fair agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, an algorithm to implement the Romevi-Romevi model is proposed.
Incidental catch or bycatch represents a significant threat for the conservation of seabird populations. The western Mediterranean is an important fishing area where the Spanish pelagic and semi-pelagic longline fleet targeting swordfish (Xiphias gladius), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and albacore (Thunnus alalunga) operates. Bycatch of these fisheries includes several seabird species. Given the importance of conservation of the bycatch species (marine mammals, turtles, sharks and seabirds), an on-board observer program was implemented by the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO); this included collecting data on effort and catch, as well as weight and number of individuals of the main bycatch species. The aim of the present study is to report data on seabird bycatch collected by the on-board observer program of the IEO in the Western Mediterranean. Data on seabird bycatch were collected for the period 2000-2008, throughout the year. Six longline gears targeting large pelagic fish were identified operating in the area of study, but only three had an effect on seabird species. Differences in catch per unit effort (CPUE, birds per 1000 hooks) for each gear, as well as their effect on particular seabird species, are reported in this study. A total of 4 786 466 hooks were monitored, which yielded 182 seabirds belonging to 7 different species. The average CPUE for the studied period was 0.038 birds per 1000 hooks. Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) were the species the most highly represented in the catch. In contrast, Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus) was only present in the longline fishery targeting albacore (CPUE = 0.005 birds per 1000 hooks). Our results suggest that Cory’s shearwater is the species the most affected by the longline fishery in the Western Mediterranean, probably due to its biological characteristics, and corroborate the well-established downward trend in its population.
On the one hand, a recent study on sea turtle by-catch during surface longline fishing targeting swordfish in the western Mediterranean Sea showed that sea turtle by-catch is independent of fishing effort and other technological factors. When the distance to the coast increases, there is a higher probability of catching a loggerhead turtle. The authors proposed to avoid fisheries further than 35 nautical miles (approximately 65 km) from the coast. However, the proposed 35 nautical miles limit could be useful where the continental shelf is narrow, as in the Balearic Sea, and useless where it widens. On the other hand, ecological model validation is considered essential for management application. The objective of the present paper is to validate the new fisheries loggerhead by-catch model in different areas outside the Balearic Sea with wider continental shelves, aimed at maintaining sustainable fishing activity compatible with the conservation of the loggerhead populations. Our present results validate the previous model, and stress the importance of the eco-geographical variable distance to the coast in understanding the loggerhead by-catch (or incidental capture) per unit effort for the longline fisheries targeting swordfish.