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This brief survey will of necessity be a highly personal one. It seemed to me advisable to list only those topics that have been thrown into relief by recent work undertaken by my colleagues, my pupils and myself, and I have not attempted to present these topics in any systematic way. In some instances the requirement is clear: future work will be hamstrung until this or that subject has been fully explored and the results of the research made available in a cheap and readable form. In other cases the projects are more Utopian. All of them, however, have forced their way into recent work of one kind or another so that, whatever their other faults or merits, they are at least up-to-date. I have classified them rather loosely into somewhat sprawling groups, having nevertheless some ground in common.
Following an extensive contact tracing exercise at a school in a London borough with one of highest tuberculosis (TB) rates in England, we estimated the background prevalence of latent TB infection to be significantly less than the widely accepted 10%. We screened 271 pupils aged 14–15 years in two groups: 96 pupils in group 1 had significant exposure (>8 h/week in the same room) to a case of infectious TB and 175 in group 2 who had minimal exposure. In group 1, 26% were diagnosed with latent or active TB, compared to 6.3% in group 2. Risk factors for TB infection (e.g. previous exposure or link to high-prevalence communities) were analysed using a cohort study design. In the univariable analysis only being in contact group 1 was statistically significantly associated with being a case (OR 5.25, 95%, P < 0.001). In the multivariable model contact group 1 remained significantly associated with being a case (adjusted OR 4.40, P = 0.001). We concluded that the 6.3% yield of TB infection in contact group 2 is either similar to or higher than the background prevalence rate of latent TB infection (LTBI) in this high TB prevalence London borough. Other parts of England with lower TB prevalence are likely to have even lower LTBI rates.
In 29 B.C., after his victories over Marcus Antonius (cos. 44, 34) and Cleopatra at Actium and in Egypt, Caesar Octavi(an)us, or Imperator Caesar Divi f., as he then wanted to be known, returned to Rome as the uncontested master of the Roman world. He did so in a carefully managed pageant that culminated with his triple triumph on 13, 14 and 15 Sextilis (the month later renamed Augustus in his honour) and the opening of the Temple of Divus Iulius in the Forum Romanum shortly thereafter, on the 18th. These ceremonies marked the culmination of his claim — a pompous declaration already made in the autumn of 36 in the aftermath of Naulochus — that he had put an end to war on “land and sea” throughout the world. While the relevant entries in the Fasti Triumphales are lost, Cassius Dio produces a fairly accurate précis of Octavian's triple triumph. The first day was the triumph over the Pannonians and the Dalmatians, the Iapydes and their neighbours, and some German and Gallic tribes; the second day commemorated the naval victory at Actium, the ; the third and final triumph, the most costly and magnificent of them all, was over Egypt. Dio clarifies that the Egyptian spoils proved so rich and bountiful that they covered the expense and lustre of all three triumphal processions.
Gregory Dart expands upon existing notions of Cockneys and the 'Cockney School' in the late Romantic period by exploring some of the broader ramifications of the phenomenon in art and periodical literature. He argues that the term was not confined to discussion of the Leigh Hunt circle, but was fast becoming a way of gesturing towards everything in modern metropolitan life that seemed discrepant and disturbing. Covering the ground between Romanticism and Victorianism, Dart presents Cockneyism as a powerful critical currency in this period, which helps provide a link between the works of Leigh Hunt and Keats in the 1810s and the early works of Charles Dickens in the 1830s. Through an examination of literary history, art history, urban history and social history, this book identifies the early nineteenth-century figure of the Cockney as the true ancestor of modernity.