The discovery, development and optimal utilization of pharmaceuticals can be greatly enhanced by knowledge of their modes of action. However, many drugs currently on the market act by unknown mechanisms. Untargeted metabolomics offers the potential to discover modes of action for drugs that perturb cellular metabolism. Development of high resolution LC-MS methods and improved data analysis software now allows rapid detection of drug-induced changes to cellular metabolism in an untargeted manner. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of untargeted metabolomics to provide unbiased target discovery for antimicrobial drugs, in particular for antiprotozoal agents. Furthermore, the utilization of targeted metabolomics techniques has enabled validation of existing hypotheses regarding antiprotozoal drug mechanisms. Metabolomics approaches are likely to assist with optimization of new drug candidates by identification of drug targets, and by allowing detailed characterization of modes of action and resistance of existing and novel antiprotozoal drugs.