In 2001 and 2002, we assessed avian richness in Linggoasri (central Java) where almost all lowland rainforest had been cleared 3 years previously. Bird surveys were carried out in a selectively-logged forest, two regenerating forests and one pine Pinus merkusii plantation. A comparison with a bird list complied at least 3 years prior to logging in Linggoasri showed that 10 lowland bird species may have been extirpated from this area following logging. However, further surveys will be needed to validate these extirpations. A comparison with a list of lowland forest birds of Java shows that only 37% of these occurred in Linggoasri. From the lowland avifauna of Java, sole frugivores and insectivores were less likely to be present in Linggoasri. Smaller, generalist-feeding lowland species, endemic to Java, were more likely to be present in this area. Persisting lowland bird species, however, did not appear to be seriously affected physiologically by habitat degradation, showing no significant loss of body condition or reduction in survival and reproduction. There is an urgent need to preserve the few remaining lowland forest patches of Java and, given the alarming rate of deforestation throughout Southeast Asia, it is critical to conserve adequately large primary lowland forests (e.g. >5,000 ha) if we are to preserve existing lowland avifauna.