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Subclinical (SCK) and clinical (CK) ketosis are metabolic disorders responsible for big losses in dairy production. Although Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to predict ketosis in cows exposed to great metabolic stress was studied extensively, little is known about its suitability in predicting hyperketonemia using individual samples, e.g. in small dairy herds or when only few animals are at risk of ketosis. The objective of the present research was to determine the applicability of milk metabolites predicted by FTIR spectrometry in the individual screening for ketosis. In experiment 1, blood and milk samples were taken every two weeks after calving from Holstein (n = 80), Brown Swiss (n = 72) and Swiss Fleckvieh (n = 58) cows. In experiment 2, cows diagnosed with CK (n = 474) and 420 samples with blood β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB] <1.0 mmol/l were used to investigate if CK could be detected by FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone from a preceding milk control. In experiment 3, correlations between data from an in farm automatic milk analyser and FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone from the monthly milk controls were evaluated. Hyperketonemia occurred in majority during the first eight weeks of lactation. Correlations between blood BHB and FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone were low (r = 0.37 and 0.12, respectively, P < 0.0001), as well as the percentage of true positive values (11.9 and 16.6%, respectively). No association of FTIR predicted ketone bodies with the interval of milk sampling relative to CK diagnosis was found. Data obtained from the automatic milk analyser were moderately correlated with the same day FTIR-predicted BHB analysis (r = 0.61). In conclusion, the low correlations with blood BHB and the small number of true positive samples discourage the use of milk mid-infrared spectrometry analyses as the only method to predict hyperketonemia at the individual cow level.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
This paper reports on a record-low-phase noise D-band signal source with 5 dBm output power, and 1.3 GHz tuning range. The source is based on the unconventional combination of a fundamental frequency 23 GHz oscillator in 150 nm AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology followed by a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS MMIC including a sixtupler and an amplifier. The amplifier operates in compression mode as power-limiting amplifier, to equalize the source output power so that it is nearly independent of the oscillator's gate and drain bias voltages used for tuning the frequency of the source. The choice of using a GaN HEMT oscillator is motivated by the need for a low oscillator noise floor, which recently has been demonstrated as a bottle-neck for data rates in wideband millimeter-wave communication systems. The phase noise performance of this signal source is −128 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz-offset. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this result is the lowest reported phase noise of D-band signal source.
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes. Supplementation with β2-1 fructan reduced faecal community richness, and two patterns of community change were observed. In most subjects, β2-1 fructan reduced the content of phylotypes aligning within the Bacteroides, whereas increasing those aligning within bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium and the family Lachnospiraceae. In the remaining subjects, supplementation increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and to a lesser extent bifidobacteria, accompanied by decreases within the Faecalibacterium and family Lachnospiraceae. β2-1 Fructan had no impact on the metagenome or glycoside hydrolase profiles in faeces from four subjects. Few relationships were found between the faecal bacterial community and various host parameters; Bacteroidetes content correlated with faecal propionate, subjects whose faecal community contained higher Bacteroidetes produced more caproic acid independent of treatment, and subjects having lower faecal Bacteroidetes exhibited increased concentrations of serum lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein independent of treatment. We found no evidence to support a defined health benefit for the use of β2-1 fructans in healthy subjects.
The role of software in mobile communication systems has increased over time. For the upcoming fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, the concept of software-defined networking (SDN) can ease network management by enabling anything as a service. Software-defined radio (SDR) enables radio virtualization, where several radio components are implemented in software. Cognitive radio (CR) goes one step further by using a software-based decision cycle to self-adapt the SDR parameters and consequently optimize the use of communication resources. This proposal leads to the possibility of having real-time communication functionalities at virtual machines in cloud computing data centers, instead of deploying specialized hardware. Network functions virtualization (NFV) claims to provide cloud-based virtualization of network functionalities. The perspective is that all these software-based concepts should converge while 5G networks are being designed. A new breakthrough will be achieved when all these software paradigms are applied to the physical layer (PHY), where its functionalities are defined and controlled by software as well.
A flexible PHY design is particularly beneficial considering the diverse applications proposed for 5G . In fact, these applications typically have conflicting design objectives and face extreme requirements. Broadband communication will play an important role in, for instance, offering video streaming services with high resolution for TV and supporting high-density multimedia such as 4K and 3D videos in smartphones. Data rates up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbps) are therefore being targeted in 5G. The Tactile Internet  enables one to control virtual or real objects via wireless links with haptic feedback. This implies that the end-to-end latency constraint in 5G must be dropped by at least one order of magnitude compared with current fourth generation (4G) technologies. The Internet of Things (IoT) is aimed at connecting a massive amount of devices. Wireless sensor networks need to provide in-service monitoring at low cost and with a long battery life. Smart vehicles improve safety and actively avoid accidents by exchanging their driving status, such as position, breaking, acceleration, and speed, with surrounding vehicles and infrastructure via challenging doubly dispersive channels. Overall, this demands asynchronous multiple access, ultra-low latency, and ultra-high reliability.
β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects’ regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.
Few studies have evaluated the implementation and impact of real-world mental health programmes delivered at scale in low-resource settings.
To describe the cross-country research methods used to evaluate district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda.
Multidisciplinary methods conducted at community, health facility and district levels, embedded within a theory of change.
The following designs are employed to evaluate the MHCPs: (a) repeat community-based cross-sectional surveys to measure change in population-level contact coverage; (b) repeat facility-based surveys to assess change in detection of disorders; (c) disorder-specific cohorts to assess the effect on patient outcomes; and (d) multilevel case studies to evaluate the process of implementation.
To evaluate whether and how a health-system-level intervention is effective, multidisciplinary research methods are required at different population levels. Although challenging, such methods may be replicated across diverse settings.
In the above mentioned article by Parker et al., on the seventh page, in the final paragraph of column two, the following three sentences should have been removed:
“DSM-IV criteria specify a minimum six-month delay between the traumatic event and a diagnosis of PTSD (APA, 2000). Any diagnosis prior to this time would be an acute stress reaction. Based on these diagnostic criteria, it is possible that at least two studies were reporting acute stress reaction rather than PTSD.”
This error does not change the results or conclusions of the study.
Natural disasters affect the health and well-being of adults throughout the world. There is some debate in the literature as to whether older persons have increased risk of mental health outcomes after exposure to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. To date, no systematic review has evaluated this. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health and psychological distress experienced by older adults.
A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress.
We identified six papers with sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.11 times more likely to experience PTSD symptoms and 1.73 more likely to develop adjustment disorder when exposed to natural disasters when compared with younger adults.
Given the global rise in the number of older adults affected by natural disasters, mental health services need to be prepared to meet their needs following natural disasters, particularly around the early detection and management of PTSD.
In this work, electrochemically recyclable lithium is analyzed as high energy density, large scale storage material for stranded renewable energy in a closed loop. The strongly exothermic reaction of lithium with carbon dioxide (CO2) yields thermal energy directly comparable to the combustion of coal or methane in an oxygen containing atmosphere. The thermal level of the reaction is sufficient for re-electrification in a thermal power plant compatible process.
The reaction of single lithium particles, avoiding particle-particle interactions, is compared to the combustion of atomized lithium spray in a CO2 containing atmosphere. Particle temperatures of up to 4000K were found for the reaction of single lithium particles in a CO2, nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and steam gas mixture. Furthermore the combustion of atomized lithium spray in both dry CO2 atmosphere and CO2/steam gas mixture was analyzed. The identified solid reaction products are lithium carbonate, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide. The formation of carbon monoxide (CO) as gaseous reaction product is demonstrated. Carbon monoxide is a valuable by-product, which could be converted to methanol or gasoline using hydrogen.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
This work investigates scanning laser annealing used for ultra-shallow junction (USJ) activation. We investigate the laser system via simulation to determine the peak temperature achieved in the active area during processing. We employed the Sentaurus TCAD software by Synopsys to perform a 2D simulation of a laser scans across the active area of the device, solving the heat equation in both time and space. An absorber layer is deposited on the wafer surface to enhance the absorption of incident energy and reduce SOI reflectivity. An effective absorption coefficient of α=8000cm-1 was calculated for the absorber layer, calibrated with the experimental laser intensity. This absorption coefficient correctly predicts the silicon temperature as a function of power with any arbitrarily defined scan speed. To investigate the role of dopant activation, an SOI wafer was implanted with arsenic 25 keV, dose 3e15 /1.5e15 cm-2 and laser annealed in areas of target temperatures ranging from 850-1300°C. The sheet resistance was measured using 4-point probe showing sheet resistance improvement with increasing laser temperature. The extracted temperature cycle from the 2D heat simulation was used as an equivalent millisecond RTA in a full 3D process simulation to study dopant distribution and activation using Sentaurus Process Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC), considering the effect of dopants, dopant clusters, and point defects. The results of this simulation demonstrate deactivation of arsenic above 1050°C, which is inconsistent with Hall measurements that suggest increasing laser temperature will increase mobility and activation. The results are analyzed versus the expected trends and suggest future improvements needed to the KMC model or the laser temperature profiles in order to describe activation kinetics in millisecond anneals within SOI.