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Intramural myomas, the most common type of uterine leiomyoma, develop within the uterine wall and expand either inwards or outwards. According to the FIGO  leiomyoma classification system, fibroid types range from 0 to 8. Types 0, 1 and 2 are submucosal myomas, and subserosal myomas refer to type 5 to 7. Both type 3 and type 4 myomas are known as intramural myomas with no involvement of the endometrial cavity (Figure 13.1). The type 3 myomas, which are in the uterine wall but in contact with the endometrium, are more likely to distort the cavity under certain stimulations. Type 4 myomas stay entirely within the myometrium, which does not expand to either the endometrium or the serosa.
To investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 in a non-frontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. 10 of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviours included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 days and 20.9 days to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
Sustainable and green energy sources are in high demand to meet the current human energy needs and environmental requirements. Hydrogen energy, with the highest energy density and zero carbon emission, is considered a potential solution. Hydrogen is primarily produced by splitting water. Rationally designed electrocatalysts are required to promote the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Organic polymer matrices provide new opportunities for electrocatalytic water splitting due to their special physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability. This article explains the role of organic polymers in electrocatalytic water decomposition from three aspects: ion-conductive polymers, conjugated conductive polymers, and carbon materials derived from organic polymers. We hope that this article will provide more rational ideas and promote the design of organic polymers for water-splitting electrocatalysis, and furnish more technical insights for the future of water electrolysis.
How do corporate bond mutual funds manage liquidity to meet investor redemptions? We show that during tranquil market conditions, these funds tend to reduce liquid asset holdings to meet redemptions, temporarily increasing relative exposures to illiquid asset classes. When aggregate uncertainty rises, however, they tend to scale down their liquid and illiquid assets proportionally to preserve portfolio liquidity. This fund-level dynamic management of liquidity appears to affect the broad financial market: Redemptions from the corporate bond fund sector lead to more corporate bond selling during high-uncertainty periods, which generates price pressures and predicts strong return reversals.
Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and albumin bovine serum (BSA) have profound application in the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of PEG and BSA modification on the cytotoxicity of QDs have been explored. It was found that the diameter of the as-prepared QDs, PEG@QDs, BSA@QDs is 3–5 nm, 4–5 nm, and 4–6 nm, respectively. With increase of the treatment time from 0 to 24 h, the HCC cell viability treated with QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs obviously decreases, showing a certain time-dependent manner. When the concentration of several nanomaterials is increased from 10 to 90 nM, the cell viability decreases accordingly, exhibiting a certain concentration-dependent manner. Under the same concentration change conditions, the reactive oxygen species contents of cells treated by QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs also rise from 7.9 × 103, 6.7 × 103, and 4.7 × 103 to 13.2 × 103, 14.3 × 103, and 12.3 × 103, respectively. In these processes, superoxide dismutase does not play a major role. This study provides strong foundation and useful guidance for QD applications in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Reduced graphene oxide supported titanium dioxide (GO/TiO2) heterojunction composites as highly active photocatalysts were synthesized via simple ultrasonic mixing and hydrothermal reaction using TiCl3 and GO as precursors. Their structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy, and thermogravimetic analysis. The GO/TiO2 heterojunction composites were used to degrade methyl orange (MO). The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation rate of the prepared GO/TiO2 composites increased by nearly three times compared with that of pristine TiO2 or GO, which reached up 90%, to degrade MO after 4 h, which provides a simple method to obtain photocatalytic materials.
Emerging evidence has been revealed that high fat diet (HFD) correlate with insulin resistance (IR) which could be induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Recently, obesity or HFD induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could promote alteration of iron metabolism. Disorder of iron metabolism have been linked to unnormal metabolism of glucose and lipid. Herein, we investigated the effect of impaired iron homeostasis on hepatic IR, focusing on ferritinophagy. Male C57/6J mice were administered with HFD (60% energy from fat) or LFD (10% energy from fat) for 10 weeks (n = 10), and Palmitic acid (PA)-insulin treated HepG2 cells were also established. Hepatic IR as evidenced by increased hepatic steatosis and decreased of p-AKT (48%, p < 0.0005), p-GSK-3β (34%, p < 0.05) in the liver of HFD mice. In addition, decreased iron level and expression NCOA4, as well as increased up-regulation of IRE1α and EIF2α were observed in HFD liver. By using desferrioxamine (DFO) and ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), we examined iron level on IRE1α and EIF2α. And glucose uptake assay shown that FAC supplementation, and ERS inhibitors of 4-PBA and STF could improve the glucose uptake of HepG2 cells in the presence of PA. Furthermore, we evaluated the glucose uptake of HepG2 cells incubated with adenovirus which mediated overexpression of NCOA4, FAC, 4-PBA (ERS inhibitor) or STF (IRE1 inhibitor). Taken together, deficiency of iron induced by impaired ferritinophagy induced hepatic IR, partly by aggravating hepatic ERS, especially IRE1 signal pathway in vivo and vitro. These findings provide evidence and new insight for therapeutic strategy of iron deficiency in NAFLD.
To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) in the first trimester (GWG-F) and the rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exploring the optimal GWG ranges for the avoidance of GDM in Chinese women.
A population-based prospective study was conducted. Gestational weight was measured regularly in every antenatal visit and assessed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria (2009). GDM was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of GWG-F and RGWG-S on GDM, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In each BMI category, the GWG values corresponding to the lowest prevalence of GDM were defined as the optimal GWG range.
Pregnant women (n 1910) in 2017.
After adjusting for confounders, GWG-F above IOM recommendations increased the risk of GDM (OR; 95 % CI) among underweight (2·500; 1·106, 5·655), normal-weight (1·396; 1·023, 1·906) and overweight/obese women (3·017; 1·118, 8·138) compared with women within IOM recommendations. No significant difference was observed between RGWG-S and GDM (P > 0·05) after adjusting for GWG-F based on the previous model. The optimal GWG-F ranges for the avoidance of GDM were 0·8–1·2, 0·8–1·2 and 0·35–0·70 kg for underweight, normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively.
Excessive GWG in the first trimester, rather than the second trimester, is associated with increased risk of GDM regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI. Obstetricians should provide more pre-emptive guidance in achieving adequate GWG-F.
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
Laboratory experiments have shown that thermal gradients in silicate melts can lead to isotopic fractionation; this is known as the Richter effect. However, it is perplexing that the Richter effect has not been documented in natural samples as thermal gradients commonly exist within natural igneous systems. To resolve this discrepancy, theoretical analysis and calculations were undertaken. We found that the Richter effect, commonly seen in experiments with wholly molten silicates, cannot be applied to natural systems because natural igneous samples are more likely to be formed out of partially molten magma and the presence of minerals adds complexity to the behaviour of the isotope. In this study, we consider two related diffusion-rate kinetic isotope effects that originate from chemical diffusion, which are absent from experiments with wholly molten samples. We performed detailed calculations for magnesium isotopes, and the results indicated that the Richter effect for magnesium isotopes is buffered by kinetic isotope effects and the total value of magnesium isotope fractionation can be zero or even undetectable. Our study provides a new understanding of isotopic behaviour during the processes of cooling and solidification in natural magmatic systems.
A multilevel nonvolatile memory based on an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is successfully demonstrated by using an atomic layer–deposited ZnO film as a charge trapping layer. The memory device shows a much higher erasing efficiency at a negative bias, i.e., after erasing at −13 V for 1 μs, the threshold voltage shift is as large as −7.4 V. In the case of 13 V/1 μs programming (P) and −12 V/1 μs erasing (E), the device demonstrates an ON/OFF readout drain current (IDS) ratio of ∼103 after 105 s, and a large and stable ON/OFF IDS ratio of ∼106 till 104 of P/E cycles. Furthermore, multilevel memory characteristics are also demonstrated on the device, showing an IDS ratio of >102 for 4 different states. Additionally, the device also successfully demonstrates typical synaptic behaviors, such as excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic current with different memory times at different memory states.
The topological structure of a parallel manipulator (PM) determines its intrinsic topological properties (TPs). The TPs further determine essential kinematic and dynamic properties of the mechanism. TPs can be expressed through topological characteristics indexes (TCI). Therefore, defining a set of TCIs is an important issue to evaluate the TPs of PMs. This article addresses the evaluation of topological properties (ETP) of PMs based on TCI. A general and effective ETP method for PMs is proposed. Firstly, 12 TCIs are proposed, including 8 quantitative TCIs, that is, position and orientation characteristics sets (POC), dimension of the POC set, degrees of freedom (DOF), number of independent displacement equations, types and number of an Assur kinematic chain (AKC), coupling degrees of the AKCs, degrees of redundancy and the number of overs; as well as 4 qualitative TCIs, that is, selection of actuated joints, identification of inactive joints, DOF type and Input–Output motion decoupling. Secondly, the ETP method is illustrated by evaluating some well-known PMs including the Delta, Tricept, Exechon, Z3, H4 and the Gough–Stewart platform manipulators, as well as 28 other typical PMs. Via the ETP analysis of these mechanisms also some valuable design knowledge is derived and guidelines for the design of PMs are established. Finally, a 5-DOF decoupled hybrid spraying robot is developed by applying the design knowledge and the design guidelines derived from the ETP analysis.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
Molluscan shells showing phenotypic variations are ideal models for studying evolution and plasticity. In north-eastern Asia, genetic and morphological diversity of the gastropod, Monodonta labio, were assumed to be influenced by both palaeoclimatic changes and current ecological factors. In this study, we examined spatial variations in shell shape of M. labio using general measurement and geometric morphometric analysis. We also investigated whether shell shape variation is best explained by environmental gradients or by genetic structuring, based on our prior molecular phylogeographic study. Two common morphological forms were observed among Chinese populations and in the adjacent Asian areas. Both the analyses revealed separation patterns in morphological variations of shell shape among the clades and populations. Environmental modelling analysis showed a significant correlation between shape variations and local maximum temperatures of the warmest month, indicating the role of natural selection in the evolution of this species. Data obtained in this study, combined with the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular phylogenetic data from the prior study, showed that morphological variations in M. labio were constrained by both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. We hypothesized that geographic separation by the Dongshan Landbridge was the first step towards its diversification, and that the temperature gradient between the East China Sea and South China Sea probably was the selective force driving the divergence of its morphological variations.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
In this paper, a discrete-time framework is proposed to value power exchange options with counterparty default risk, where counterparty risk is considered in a reduced-form setting and the variance processes of the underlying assets are captured by GARCH processes. In addition, the proposed model allows for the correlation between the intensity of default and the variances of the underlying assets by breaking down the total risk into systematic and idiosyncratic components. By dint of measure-change techniques and characteristic functions, we obtain the closed-form pricing formula for the value of power exchange options with counterparty default risk. Finally, numerical results are presented to show the power exchange option values.
In this paper, we reported both the experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of a Raman fiber laser based on a master oscillator–power amplifier configuration. The Raman fiber laser adopted the dual-wavelength bidirectional pumping configuration, utilizing 976 nm laser diodes and 1018 nm fiber lasers as the pump sources. A 60-m-long
ytterbium-doped fiber was used to convert the power from 1070 to 1124 nm, realizing a maximum power output of 3.7 kW with a 3 dB spectral width of 6.8 nm. Moreover, we developed a multi-frequency model taking into consideration the Raman gain spectrum and amplified spontaneous emission. The calculated spectral broadening of both the forward and backward laser was in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, a 1.5 kW, 1183 nm second-order Raman fiber laser was further experimentally demonstrated by the addition of a 70-m-long germanium-doped passive fiber.