In this study, the question of whether Childers canegrub, Antitrogus parvulus (Britton) overwinters in the subsoil was addressed. Irrigated fields of sugarcane were sampled during a 2-year period near Bundaberg in southern Queensland. Antitrogus parvulus overwintered as second and third instars at each of three sites. During autumn and winter third instars of different allochronic (separated in age by 12 months) populations occurred together and could not be readily separated. Field-collected third instars were reared on ryegrass and separated into two age groups based on the date of pupation. Third instars in the first year of their life cycle (young third instars) remained at shallow depth (100–200 mm) and did not overwinter in the subsoil as once thought. Minimum temperatures during winter were 13–16°C and did not prevent young third instars from feeding and gaining weight. Third instars in their second and final year moved downwards from late summer and pupated in the subsoil at 293–425 mm in spring. General phenology was as previously reported with first instar larvae occurring from January until April, second instars from January until November and third instar larvae throughout the year. Prepupae and pupae were found between October and December and adults occurred in soil during November and January. Batches of eggs occurred at a mean depth of 350 mm. First and second instars occurred predominantly at relatively shallow (100–200 mm) depths in the soil profile. All stages tended to be most common under rows of sugarcane rather than in the interrow.