The Pirot sheep is a small Zackel that has been developed in the region of Pirot and the neighbouring municipalities in Serbia. Pirot sheep population has been reduced to only 60 animals in the Republic of Serbia. An overview of qualitative phenotypical and morphometrical characteristics of Pirot sheep from the Stara Planina is presented in this paper. The sheep included in this study belong to the last flock of the breed. The evaluation aims to obtain the phenotypical description of this indigenous breed as a phase of preservation strategy. Therefore, a total of 51 ewes and two rams were measured to obtain the detailed data concerning conformation. The phenotypical characteristics of animals included were also described. Based on the results, the Pirot sheep is a small breed with compact, slightly rectangular body frame (body length 115.40 percent of height at withers). The investigated sheep population was homogeneous, and morphological variations were limited to the data obtained in our research. The differences detected among different age groups were significant and reflected late maturing and slow growth of individuals. The comparison of the data determined by the evaluation of the modern population of Pirot sheep with the description from the older literature did not reveal that many significant changes of the morphological characteristics have occurred during the last 30 years. The small effective population and increasing inbreeding can threaten the efforts to preserve this sheep. The cultural heritage of the local community is also in danger due to the fact that the cornerstones of rural tradition in the area have been production of the three nationally important agricultural brands in Serbia – Pirot kilim (Pirot rug), Pirot/Stara Planina lamb and Pirot/Stara Planina Kachkaval cheese, all of which are depending on the Pirot sheep breeding. Additionally, some problems affecting the preservation of animal genetic resources in Serbia are reviewed with the focus on the Stara Planina. The research indicated that ex situ conservation should also be considered in the case of the Pirot sheep.