Prodiplosis longifila is reported as a pest of a wide range of species cultivated in America, including citrus, solanaceous species and asparagus. This species has different behavioural traits that are primarily centred on the oviposition habit and the feeding of larvae, which can change depending on the host. However, scarce information is available on population studies and the natural history of this insect, and uncertainty exists about the taxonomic identity and the geographic distribution of this species. The main objective was to perform a phylogenetic and genetic study of P. longifila populations and to define whether the North American and South American populations belong to the same species or whether a differentiation process had occurred due to geographic distance. A second objective was to determine whether this species showed genetic differentiation by host specialization in South America. The phylogenetic and population analyses based on DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase I gene) and a region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) revealed divergent clades attributable to geographic distance and host specificity. The North American and South American P. longifila insects were confirmed to be genetically distinct, and the genetic distances exceeded the values expected for intraspecific variation. In South America, the population analysis of P. longifila from tomato, sweet pepper (Solanaceae), Tahiti lime and key lime (Rutaceae) hosts evidenced high genetic differentiation between populations associated with different hosts and an absence of gene flow between these groups, suggesting the corresponding formation of cryptic species.