In the Czochralski growth of single crystals from large melts, fluid flow phenomena have a major effect on interface shape, growth striations, defect density and the length of crystals which can be grown from a melt of given volume and thermal geometry. Because of the technical difficulties encountered in making direct measurements in molten oxides, simulation experiments have been extensively utilized to gain insight into melt behavior.
Both temperature profile and flow geometry results from simulation experiments are discussed. This data is supported by direct melt observations and results from the characterization of grown crystals. When reviewed together, this information offers new insights into the complex behavior of Czochralski growth processes, including the role of thermal gradients, crystal rotation, and surface tension driven (Marangoni) convection.