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The superfamily Pronocephaloidea Looss, 1899 comprises digeneans occurring in the gut and respiratory organs of fishes, turtles, marine iguanas, birds and mammals. Although many life cycles are known for species of the Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909 maturing in birds and mammals, relatively few are known for the remaining pronocephaloid lineages. We report the cercariae of five pronocephaloid species from marine gastropods of the Queensland coast, Australia. From Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, we report three cercariae, two from Rhinoclavis vertagus (Cerithiidae) and one from Nassarius coronatus (Nassariidae). From Moreton Bay, southern Queensland, an additional two cercariae are reported from two genotypes of the gastropod worm shell Thylacodes sp. (Vermetidae). Phylogenetic analysis using 28S rRNA gene sequences shows all five species are nested within the Pronocephaloidea, but not matching or particularly close to any previously sequenced taxon. In combination, phylogenetic and ecological evidence suggests that most of these species will prove to be pronocephalids parasitic in marine turtles. The Vermetidae is a new host family for the Pronocephaloidea.
Varro's De lingua Latina (= Ling.) is a treasure trove of information. Of the originally twenty-five books, six have come down to us more or less complete. Among these, Books 5–7 give us many hundreds of etymologies, and Books 8–10 discuss the question whether Latin morphology is regular or not. What Varro rarely comments on is sociolinguistic variation. The sociolinguistic comments in Varro's work can almost be counted on one hand. For instance, in 5.162 Varro remarks that cenaculum, from cena ‘dinner’, means ‘attic’ in Roman Latin, but that the original meaning was, as one might expect, ‘dining-room’, a meaning preserved in the non-Roman dialects of Latium, Falerii and Corduba in Spain; the meaning also lives on in religious uses in Lanuvium. In 7.96, Varro tells us that some words are pronounced with -ae- by some, but with -ē- by others. We know that non-Roman varieties of Latin monophthongized -ae- earlier than the Roman dialect did. Varro mentions pairs like scaena / scēna ‘stage’, a loan from Greek σκηνή, which shows that -ae- is hypercorrect here. Interestingly, only in one such pair is the variant with -ē- ascribed to country people, in the name Maesius / Mēsius, and this is indeed the only pair where the diphthong -ae- is original rather than the result of hypercorrection.
Numerical simulations of ship/rotor-coupled flowfield have been performed to investigate the rotational direction effects on a shipborne single-rotor helicopter in different deck landing trajectories (i.e., lateral and longitudinal translation) based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. Both the momentum source model and moving overset mesh model are employed to simulate the effect of the rotor on the ship airwake for different levels of fidelity requirement. The aerodynamic loading characteristics in terms of time-averaged and root-mean-square (RMS) thrust and pitch and roll moments are compared for two helicopter rotors with opposite rotation directions in a starboard 30 degrees wind condition. The time-averaged results show that the mean thrust of a counterclockwise rotor is greater than that of a clockwise rotor, particularly in the lateral translation phase. This suggests that a helicopter with a counterclockwise rotor could provide more collective control margin under this condition. Furthermore, a more significant reduction in pitch moment is experienced by the counterclockwise rotor during the two landing trajectories, and thus the effect of the aircraft being pulled towards the hangar tends to be more severe on the helicopter with the counterclockwise rotor. RMS loading results indicate that the unsteady loading levels on the clockwise rotor are much higher than that of the counterclockwise rotor in all three axes for most of the lateral and longitudinal translation phases. As a result, the pilot is likely to experience a higher workload when operating a helicopter with a clockwise rotor in the case of a deck landing in this wind condition.
An adapter for a standard Norelco spectrographte attachment will be described which permits the examination of a selected area of the specimen by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The size of the area can be varied depending upon the choice of pinholes with sizes available dovwi to 0.010 in. or 250μ. The sample is placed into a specially modified sample holder so that it can be moved at orthogonal directions under the beam from outside the spectrograph while the sample is under X-ray irradiation. Dam on applications will also be given.
A study was conducted to assess the effects of rapid wilting of grass prior to ensiling on milk composition in lactating dairy cattle across a range of silage harvests. The effects of wilting on the response to bacterial inoculation were also examined. Experiments 1 and 2 were of 2 x 2 factorial design based on the factors wilting (unwilted and wilted treatments) and inoculant (control and inoculant treatments). The inoculants each had Lactobacillus plantarum plus other bacterial species. Experiments 1 and 2 had 3 and 8 harvests respectively and the corresponding feeding experiments were balanced changeover designs with 3 and 8 periods respectively. The feeding periods were of 8 and 3 weeks duration in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively and during each period each silage was fed ad libitum together with a concentrate supplement to 12 cows.
The durations of the wilting periods ranged from 24 to 48 h in each experiment and the mean initial and final dry matter contents of the grass were 200; 317 g/kg and 176; 316 g/kg for Experiments 1 and 2 respectively.
In Experiment 1 the butterfat, protein and lactose concentrations (g/kg) from the unwilted and wilted silages were 45.1 and 47.2 (s.e. 0.23, P<0.001), 33.7 and 35.6 (s.e. 0.11, P<0.001) and 48.9 and 48.7 (s.e. 0.08, P<0.05) respectively. In Experiment 2 the corresponding values (g/kg) were 45.2 and 46.4 (s.e. 0.23, P<0.05), 32.3 and 33.2 (s.e. 0.13, P<0.05) and 48.9 and 49.1 (s.e. 0.06, P>0.05) respectively. Inoculation had no significant effects on milk composition with either unwilted or wilted silage except for a reduction in protein content in Experiment 1, with values (g/kg) of 34.8 and 35.4 (s.e. 0.11, P<0.05) for control and inoculant treated silage respectively.
It is concluded that wilting produced statistically significant increases in the concentrations of butterfat and protein in milk and that inoculants had little effect on milk composition in this study.