Large-scale applications of non-persistent but broad-spectrum chemical insecticides in Africa during the 1980s for control of acridoid pests, particularly the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål) and Sahelian pest grasshoppers, raised concern about environmental damage and human safety. Similar concerns have been expressed in Australia, the United States, and Canada and have led to a search for alternative strategies. To lessen dependence on chemicals, an integrated pest management (IPM) approach for grasshopper control has been encouraged in the United States with emphasis on biological control as an important component and this is also desirable elsewhere, but additional biocontrol components are needed. Current strategies for most pest acridoids rely on short-term destruction of outbreak populations. Nymphs are the preferred target wherever possible and inundative augmentation of entomopathogenic deuteromycete fungi formulated as biopesticides could replace chemical spraying in some cases, especially where the major threat is to crops remote from the pest breeding areas. Entomopathogens are slower acting than chemicals and thus best suited for use where the pest is not immediately threatening to crops. Schistocerca gregaria and Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss pose particularly difficult problems because of the very large area and inaccessibility of their potential breeding grounds, their very sudden upsurges, and their great mobility as adult swarms. Fast-acting chemicals are likely to be needed when rapid intervention is required to control these pests, but an IPM strategy could incorporate biopesticide application in the early stages of upsurges and also be used for swarm control in some cases. However, improved prediction and monitoring are needed to facilitate the use of biopesticides and other IPM techniques against these pests.