Diamides have been used worldwide to manage the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), however some strains showed resistance to these molecules. Also, pheromone traps could be used to manage this pest, hence reducing the use of insecticides in the field. Resistant DBM strains may have biological disadvantages in comparison to susceptible strains in areas without sprays, including reduction in fitness or behavioral changes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether DBM strains resistant to chlorantraniliprole showed adaptive costs that could alter male attraction to the sex pheromone, in comparison to susceptible strains in the laboratory and semi-field conditions. First, the LC1, LC10, LC25, and LC50 of DBM to chlorantraniliprole were established, which were 0.003, 0.005, 0.007, and 0.011 mg a.i. liter−1, and 5.88, 24.80, 57.22, and 144.87 mg a.i. liter−1 for the susceptible and resistant strains, respectively. Development and reproduction of DBM strains subjected to those concentrations were compared. Later, male response to the sex pheromone was investigated in a Y-tube in the laboratory and in a greenhouse to pheromone traps. Resistant DBM strain showed an adaptive cost in comparison to the susceptible strain that can result in a delay in population growth in the field when selection pressure is absent. Conversely, resistant males have no olfactory response alteration in comparison to susceptible males, consistently at 3 (P = 0.6848) and 7 days (P = 0.9140) after release, suggesting that pheromone traps continue to be a viable alternative to manage DBM in an IPM system.