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The physics of a rotary wing in forward flight are highly complex, particularly when flow separation is involved. The purpose of this work is to assess the role of three-dimensional (3-D) vortex dynamics, with a focus on Coriolis forces, in the evolution of vortices in the reverse flow region of a rotating wing. High-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to recreate the flow about a representative rotating wing in forward flight. A vorticity transport analysis was performed to quantify and compare the magnitudes of 2-D flow physics, vortex tilting and Coriolis effects in the resulting flow fields. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics was found to have a very small impact on the growth and behaviour of vortices in the reverse flow region; in fact, the rate of vortex growth was successfully modelled using a simple 2-D vortex method. The small role of 3-D physics was attributed to the Coriolis and vortex tilting terms being approximately equal and opposite to one another. This ultimately lead to vortex behaviour that more closely resembled a surging wing as opposed to a conventional rotating wing, a feature unique to the reverse flow region.
Human gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a tissue nematode of the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is highly endemic in Asia, including Thailand. The freshwater swamp eel (Monopterus albus), the second intermediate host of the gnathostome nematode, has an important role in transmitting the infection in Thailand. Surveys on the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological features in freshwater swamp eels have been performed continuously and reported in Thailand. However, there is still limited molecular data on intra-species variations of the parasite. In this study, a total of 19 third-stage larvae of morphologically identified G. spinigerum were collected from 437 liver samples of freshwater swamp eels purchased from a large wholesale market in Bangkok, Thailand. Molecular characterization based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences was performed to elucidate their genetic variations and phylogenetic relationship. Among the 19 infective larvae recovered from these eels, 16 were sequenced successfully. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the partial COI gene showed the presence of three distinct COI haplotypes. Our findings confirm the presence of G. spinigerum as the main species in Thailand.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
For the first time, we estimated the population sizes of two swan species and four goose species from observations during the non-breeding period in East Asia. Based on combined counts from South Korea, Japan and China, we estimated the total abundance of these species as follows: 42,000–47,000 Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus; 99,000–141,000 Tundra Swans C. columbianus bewickii; 56,000–98,000 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides; 157,000–194,000 Bean Geese A. fabalis; 231,000–283,000 Greater White-fronted Geese A. albifrons; and 14,000–19,000 Lesser White-fronted Geese A. erythropus. While the count data from Korea and Japan provide a good reflection of numbers present, there remain gaps in the coverage in China, which particularly affect the precision of the estimates for Bean, Greater and Lesser White-fronted Geese as well as Tundra Swans. Lack of subspecies distinction of Bean Geese in China until recently also limits our ability to determine the true status of A. f. middendorffii there, but all indications suggest this population numbers around 18,000 individuals and is in need of urgent attention. The small, highly concentrated and declining numbers of Lesser White-fronted Geese give concern for this species, as do the major declines in Greater White-fronted Geese in China (in contrast to numbers in Japan and Korea, considered to be a separate flyway). In the absence of any demographic data, it is impossible to interpret the causes of these changes in abundance. Improved monitoring, including demographic and tracking studies are required to provide the necessary information to retain populations in favourable conservation status.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher fraction of carbon-enhanced stars, but we are also finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-rich. These are compared with yields from a variety of supernova predictions.
Latino Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. The characteristics of glioblastoma in this population is poorly studied. We have evaluated the data of 47,540 glioblastoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. This SEER data from 1973-2000 includes up to 13 cancer registries. For 2001 to 2011, the data has improved geographic coverage with 18 registries encompassing 28% of the U.S. population.
Latinos have a lower incidence of GBM than non-Latino Whites. Gender distribution is similar. The total SEER data show that Latinos present slightly younger and have a higher incidence of giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma than non-Latino Whites. Despite higher rates of radiation therapy, the one year survival rate (34.7%) for non-Latino White populations is less than for Latinos (39.0%, p <0.001). Subset analyses (2001-2011) of all the above parameters show similar results except for gliosarcoma incidence. A literature search does not identify MGMT or IDH1 data regarding Latino Americans.
We have assessed 2 prognostic markers in 30 Latino glioblastoma patients. MGMT methylation is present in 24% and IDH1 mutation is found in 12.5%. Our preliminary data suggests that Latinos may have a greater incidence of MGMT unmethylated tumors. Younger age may possibly contribute to improved survival in Latinos but the underlying molecular basis is unresolved.
Right hemispheric damage (RHD) caused by strokes often induce attentional disorders such as hemispatial neglect. Most patients with neglect over time have a reduction in their ipsilesional spatial attentional bias. Despite this improvement in spatial bias, many patients remain disabled. The cause of this chronic disability is not fully known, but even in the absence of a directional spatial attentional bias, patients with RHD may have an impaired ability to accurately and precisely allocate their spatial attention. This inaccuracy and variable directional allocation of spatial attention may be revealed by repeated performance on a spatial attentional task, such as line bisection (LBT). Participants with strokes of their right versus left (LHD) hemisphere along with healthy controls (HC) performed 24 consecutive trials of 24 cm horizontal line bisections. A vector analysis of the magnitude and direction of deviations from midline, as well as their standard deviations (SD), were calculated. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the LHD, RHD and HC groups in overall spatial bias (mean bisection including magnitude and direction); however, the RHD group had a significantly larger variability of their spatial errors (SD), and made larger errors (from midline) than did the LHD and HC groups. There was a curvilinear relationship between the RHD participants’ performance variability and their severity of their inaccuracy. Therefore, when compared to HC and LHD, the RHD subjects’ performance on the LBT is more variable and inaccurate. (JINS, 2015, 21, 373–377)
Nanoparticle-based vectors are fast becoming the main choice for nucleic acid delivery. Fluorescent nanoparticles have the added advantage of tracking the delivery process and also of tracking cells transfected with nucleic acids for cell therapy. Fluorescent upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) are ideal candidates for tracking since they are excited by NIR light and hence have very low phototoxicity, high signal-to-noise ratio and enable imaging in deep tissues. UCNs coated with a layer of silica and adsorbed with siRNA or siRNA loaded into the mesoporous silica coating on the UCNs have been used for siRNA delivery. However the loading of siRNA is very poor since the silica coating is negatively charged and it repels the negatively charged siRNA limiting the amount of siRNA that can be adsorbed on the surface of nanoparticles. Here we report the use of a layer-by-layer approach to coat the UCNs with Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and use it for delivery. Highly monodispersed UCNs were synthesized with an average size of 50 nm. They were then modified with PLL and STAT-3 siRNA was adsorbed on to the surface of the modified UCNs. The loading of the siRNA was found to be 60 % more efficient by this approach as compared to silica coated UCNs alone. The PLL-coated UCNs also were minimally cytotoxic as shown by MTS assay. The siRNA coated UCNs also efficiently transfected B16F0 cells and knocked down STAT3 significantly and also enabled cell imaging. Thus, This method shows good promise for siRNA delivery and tracking and this could also be extended to in-vivo transfection and tracking.
We explored the distribution of Cardicola chaetodontis in chaetodontid fishes from the Great Barrier Reef. We found just four infections of adult worms in 238 individuals of 26 chaetodontid species. By contrast, eggs were present in hearts of 75 fishes (31·5%) and 19 of 26 chaetodontid species (all Chaetodon species). In 10 cases eggs contained moving miracidia; all the others were dead and degenerating. Eggs were sought in the gills of 51 individual fish. There were 17 cases of eggs being present in gills while present in the heart, but also 13 cases where eggs were absent from gills but present in the heart, suggesting that eggs remain longer in heart tissue than in gills. ITS2 rDNA sequences from two adult worms and eggs extracted from gills of five fishes (all different species) were identical to previously reported sequences of C. chaetodontis except for a single base-pair difference in two samples. We conclude that aporocotylid eggs trapped in fish heart tissues may inform understanding of the distributions and host ranges of aporocotylids, especially where adult prevalence is low. The low host-specificity of C. chaetodontis contrasts with higher specificity of trematodes of chaetodontids that have trophic transmission.
A rapid dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was adopted for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis, using purified 31-kDa glycoprotein specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis as diagnostic antigen and protein A colloidal gold conjugate as antigen–antibody detector. A total of 59 serum samples were assayed – 11 samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable A. cantonensis-specific antibody in immunoblotting; 23 samples from patients with other related parasitic diseases, i.e. gnathostomiasis (n= 8), cysticercosis (n= 5), toxocariasis (n= 2), filariasis (n= 4), paragonimiasis (n= 2) and malaria (n= 2); and 25 samples from normal healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of DIGFA to detect anti-A. cantonensis specific antibodies in serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases, were both 100%. No positive DIGFA was observed in cases with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy control subjects. The 3-min DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as the 3-h immunoblot test in angiostrongyliasis confirmed cases that revealed a 31-kDa reactive band. The gold-based DIGFA is more rapid and easier to perform than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The test utilizing purified A. cantonensis antigen is reliable and reproducible for specific immunodiagnosis of human infection with A. cantonensis – thus can be applied as an additional routine test for clinical diagnostic support. Large-scale sero-epidemiological studies in endemic communities in north-east Thailand are under way to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions.
The abundance of the neutron-rich magnesium isotopes observed in metal-poor stars is explained quantitatively with a chemical evolution model of the local Galaxy that considers — for the first time — the metallicity-dependent contribution from intermediate mass stars. Previous models that simulate the variation of Mg isotopic ratios with metallicity in the solar neighbourhood have attributed the production of 25Mg and 26Mg exclusively to hydrostatic burning in massive stars. These models match the data well for [Fe/H] > –1.0 but severely underestimate 25,26Mg/24Mg at lower metallicities. Earlier studies have noted that this discrepancy may indicate a significant role played by intermediate mass stars. Only recently have detailed calculations of intermediate mass stellar yields of 25Mg and 26Mg become available with which to test this hypothesis. In an extension of previous work, we present a model that successfully matches the Mg isotopic abundances in nearby Galactic disk stars through the incorporation of nucleosynthesis predictions of Mg isotopic production in asymptotic giant branch stars.
We studied the self-assembly mechanisms of Graphene Nanoribbon (GNR) with unsaturated edges and demonstrated the ability of GNR to self-assemble into novel stable structures. We proposed three mechanisms which dictate the self-assembly evolution of GNR with unsaturated edges. Using the Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond-Order (AIREBO) potential, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on initially-planar GNRs with unsaturated edges. The simulation results showed that the self-assembly mechanisms and final conformations of the GNRs correlate well with the proposed GNR self-assembly mechanisms. Furthermore, the simulations also showed the ability of a narrow GNR to self-assemble into various nanostructures, such as tapered graphene nano-rings and graphene nanoscrolls with an embedded nanotube.
Highly sensitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensors were realized by the integration of Si nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by using a simple and economic electroless wet etching technique. EIS sensors with NWs longer than 1 μm were observed to have considerably increased capacitance and high pH sensitivity. The pH sensitivity of the EIS sensor with 3.8 μm long NWs was 60.2 mV/pH, which is higher than the theoretical Nernstian of 59 mV/pH. The EIS sensors with NWs exhibited slightly worse pH hysteresis and drift properties than that of the conventional planar type EIS sensor. The increases in pH sensitivity, hysteresis and drift are attributable to the extended surface area of the EIS sensors enabled by the NWs.
We report a technique that can, in principle, selectively convert SiC into graphene at any location and in any size or shape, limited only by the ability of the available lithographic techniques. This technique relies on our discovery that, at ambient condition, a laser beam can convert SiC into graphene layers at the illuminated site, and the conversion can be realized in two ways. One can pattern the SiC film, which is already grown on a Si wafer, with desirable features and then illuminate the SiC film with the laser, or simply “write” the graphene features directly onto the unpatterned SiC film with the laser. Alternatively, one can pre-pattern the Si substrate to achieve selective growth of SiC, then perform the laser conversion. We have demonstrated the feasibility of both approaches. Fullerene (C60) was used to grow a thin SiC film on a Si (111) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 700-800 oC. The results are verified by various structural, chemical and optical characterization techniques. This work yields the possibility of fabricating graphene based (electronic) nanostructures or superlattices, photonic crystals, and integrated electronic and optoelectronic devices on a large Si wafer.