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Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5–98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57–198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.
Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking.
Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics.
The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed.
PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.
The first reported New Zealand-acquired case of murine typhus occurred near Auckland in 1989. Since then, 72 locally acquired cases have been recorded from northern New Zealand. By 2008, on the basis of the timing and distribution of cases, it appeared that murine typhus was escalating and spreading southwards. To explore the presence of Rickettsia typhi in the Waikato region, we conducted a seroprevalence study, using indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot, and cross-adsorption assays of blood donor samples. Of 950 human sera from Waikato, 12 (1·3%) had R. typhi antibodies. The seroprevalence for R. typhi was slightly higher in northern Waikato (1·4%) compared to the south (1·2%; no significant difference, χ2P = 0·768 at P < 0·05). Our results extend the reported southern range of R. typhi by 140 km and indicate it is endemic in Waikato. Evidence of past Rickettsia felis infections was also detected in six sera. Globally, R. felis is an emerging disease of concern and this pathogen should also be considered when locally acquired rickettsiosis is suspected. If public health interventions are to be implemented to reduce the risk of rickettsioses as a significant public health problem, improvements in rickettsial diagnostics and surveillance will be necessary.
We present gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) could be used not only for stimuli-responsive optical sensors but also for the quantification of radical compounds when these nanoparticles are suitably combined with polymeric materials. When Au NPs are assembled 2-dimensionally on the surface of hydrogel NPs which respond to temperatures, the hybrid NPs displayed thermoreversible multiple color switching. Accordingly, optical bandwidths of the hybrid NPs are reversibly changed with temperatures: with hybrid NPs assembled with 51 nm Au NPs, prominent optical signals are recorded at 900 nm at 50 °C while most of extinction signals are shown below 600 nm at room temperatures. In addition, we demonstrate the modification of Ag NPs’ surfaces (nanocubes and nanospheres) with polyelectrolytes (either positive or negative) could extend the quantifiable detection ranges of radical compounds. Through the surface modification of Ag NPs, the polyelectrolytes protect the Ag NPs by probably either retarding (forming diffusion barriers) or preventing (blocking/entrapping/scavenging) the arrival of radicals to Ag NPs or both. The roles of the polyelectrolytes are demonstrated by using radical compounds produced from tetrahydrofuran and H2O2. From the results, we could obtain calibration curves for the wide-range quantification of radical compounds.
Background: Ependymomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system whose management is controversial. This population-based study of adults and children with ependymoma aims to (1) identify clinical and treatment-related factors that impact survival and (2) determine if postoperative radiotherapy (RT) can improve survival of patients with subtotal resection (STR) to levels similar to patients who had gross total resection (GTR). Methods: This retrospective population-based study evaluated 158 patients with ependymoma diagnosed between 1975-2007 in Alberta, Canada. Results: Younger patients (<7 years of age) were more likely to be diagnosed with grade III tumors compared with adults in whom grade I tumors were more common (p=0.003). Adults were more likely to have spinally located tumors compared to young children whose tumors were typically found in the brain. Overall, young children with ependymoma were more likely to die than older children or adults (p=0.001). An equivalent number of patients underwent GTR as compared with STR (48% vs 45%, respectively). Overall, older age, spinal tumor location, lower grade, and GTR were associated with improved progression free survival but only GTR was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Median survival after STR and RT was 82 months compared with 122 months in patients who had GTR (p=0.0022). Conclusions: This is the first Canadian population-based analysis of patients with ependymoma including adults and children. Extent of resection appears to be the most important factor determining overall survival. Importantly, the addition of RT to patients initially treated with STR does not improve survival to levels similar to patients receiving GTR.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
The whole body concentration ratio (CR) of 137Cs, 85Sr and 65Zn for Chinese minnow (P. oxycephalus) and earthworm (E. andrei) were experimentally measured in a laboratory. The mean CR (Bq/kg fresh per Bq/l) of Chinese minnow was 3.5 for 137Cs, 11.0 for 85Sr, and 9.8 for 65Zn, respectively. The mean CR (Bq/kg fresh per Bq/kg) of earthworm was 4.4 × 10−4 for 137Cs, 1.7 × 10−3 for 85Sr, and 1.4 × 10−3 for 65Zn, respectively.
We report an extremely rare case of a fungus ball within a mucocele of the sphenoid sinus and infratemporal fossa.
A 62-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a mass lesion in the left sphenoid sinus and infratemporal fossa. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity was unremarkable. Computed tomography showed a non-enhancing, expansile mass with calcifications in the sphenoid and infratemporal fossa; T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked hypointense signals within the sphenoid sinus mass, with an intermediate signal intensity. A presumptive diagnosis of a mucocele was made. During surgery, a profuse amount of yellow fluid was drained from the mucocele. Clay-like material was noted within the mucocele, corresponding to the hypointense magnetic resonance imaging signals; this was identified as aspergillus on histopathological examination. Radiological findings for a fungus ball within a mucocele can be similar to those for allergic fungal sinusitis, which shows mixed low and high attenuation on computed tomography and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, within an expansile, cystic lesion.
Although an association between a fungus ball and a mucocele is rare in the paranasal sinuses, this disease entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansile, cystic sinus lesions.
Offspring of diabetic mothers experience an increased risk for type 2 diabetes but it is not known whether diabetic pregnancies also confer a higher inter-generational risk for diabetic complications. Because microalbuminuria is a sensitive indicator of glomerular damage, we compared the urine albumin:creatinine ratios (ACRs) between 65 infants of diabetic mothers (InfDM+) and 59 infants of non-diabetic mothers (InfDM−), and repeated the comparisons in 21 InfDM+ and 19 InfDM− when children were 5–19 months old. ACRs were higher among neonates compared with normal reference values for adults, but declined with increasing age. The only independent predictor of higher ACRs in a logistic regression model (⩾13 mg/mmol v. <13 mg/mmol) was the presence of delivery complications (odds ratio 2.95; P = 0.015). Neither high nor low birth weight was associated with higher neonatal ACRs. The most unique finding of the study was that InfDM+ had significantly lower ACRs than InfDM− [mean = 12.9 (median = 6.0) v. mean = 16.6 (median = 11.5), respectively at P = 0.05] even after adjusting for other variables using logistic regression (odds ratio 0.25; P = 0.001). In contrast, by 5–19 months, there was a trend toward higher ACRs among InfDM+ compared with InfDM− [mean = 6.3 mg/mmol (median = 1.9) v. mean = 3.0 mg/mmol (median = 2.5), respectively at P = 0.25]. Lower ACRs in InfDM+ may be due to developmental changes in fetal kidneys induced by hyperinsulinemia. Although the implications of this observation are unclear, it is possible that exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment might influence the later risk for renal disease.
A 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene comonomer was incorporated into a distyrylbenzene derivative 11. Novel 1,2-disubstituted-3,6-dibromobenzene comonomers 15 and 18 were prepared by directed metallation. Copolymerization of 11with a 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronate ester 1 yielded a green fluorescent polymer while copolymerization of 15 and 18 with the 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronate 22 afforded promising blue fluorescent polymers 23 and 24 respectively.
The optical properties and the thermal stability of Ge and Sn doped TeOx films prepared by coevaporating TeO2, Te, Ge and Sn are reported. These films are amorphous as-deposited and crystalline Te appears after annealing at, e.g., 100 to 250°C. As expected, the addition of Ge and Sn increases the absorption of the TeOx films at the wavelength of interest (e.g., 830 nm). However, the thermal stability of (TeO1.1)1-xGex (x=0 to ~0.7) films is found to decrease with increasing x initially, starting to increase with increasing x only after x reaches a value between 0.3 and 0.4. These results differ from those reported previously for Ge and Sn-doped TeOx films and from those observed for Te-Ge alloy films. Interpretations of these results based on a solid state reaction between TeO2 and Ge or Sn during deposition are presented and discussed.
This paper reports on the structures and properties of Y1Ba2Cu3O9−x samples prepared in precisely controlled oxygen environments using a solid-state ionic technique. By titrating out oxygen at low temperatures, orthorhombic Y1Ba2Cu3O9−x samples were prepared with oxygen contents below 6.50. Resistivity and magnetometry studies indicated that these reduced, orthorhombic samples were marginally superconducting, with their superconductivity probably arising from local regions of higher oxygen content.
A 2-D model for boron implantation into (100) silicon through overlying oxide layers has been developed and implemented into the process simulator FLOOPS. This model is both accurate and computationally efficient and shows explicit dependencies on all of the key implant parameters: energy, dose, tilt and rotation angles, oxide layer thickness, mask height, mask edge orientation, and rotation of the wafer during implantation.
In this work, we present an extensive study of the oxidation process of Si/Ge nanocrystals (nc-Ge)/Si samples using SIMS (Second Ion Mass Spectroscopy), Transmission Electron Micrscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and electrical characterization of Metal/Oxide/Semiconductor capacitors (MOS). Various samples with different oxidation times have been studied and it is demonstrated that Silicon dry oxidation kinetics is not influenced by the presence of Ge. As shown by SIMS measurements, a pure SiO2 layer is formed on the top of the structure, while the Ge atoms are intermixed with the silicon substrate. The TEM and AFM analysis show that the nc-Ge height is drastically reduced during the oxidation process. The fabrication of MOS capacitors on the structures allowed to study electron and hole trapping in the Ge dots. From our analysis we have shown that the Ge nanostructures which covered by SiO2 are not isolated from the Si substrate.
This paper gives a brief overview of fabrication problems and solutions for microelectromechnical system (MEMS) using PZT films based on surface micromachining techniques. In addition we report characteristics of PZT films on diagnostic test structures designed to test the new bottom electrode for MEMS. PZT(53/47) films were deposited by metalorganic decomposition on a 3″ silicon wafer with Pt/Ti/TiO2/Poly-Si/Si3N4 structure in order to fabricate piezoelectric cantilever beam microaccelerometers and uncooled infrared (IR) detectors. In order to investigate the feasibility of RuO2/Ru and Pt/RuO2 conducting layers as a new bottom electrode for piezoelectric MEMS, the piezoelectric constant (d33) of the PZT films on each bottom electrode was measured. Furthermore, we show the fraction of working top electrodes among 20 total electrodes according to electrode size to investigate the stability of PZT with different bottom electrodes. These results suggest that RuO2/Ru and Pt/RuO2 are possible for bottom electrodes of MEMS.
Liquid and volatile (hfac)CuL compounds where hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro- 2,4-pentanedionate and L = 1-pentene (1), acetyltrimethylsilane (2), and vinyltri- methoxysilane (3) were newly developed for reproducible copper deposition. During CVD processes, no premature decomposition of the precursor was observed in the source reservoir that contained the mixture of (hfac)CuL and excess free ligand L. Pure Cu films were deposited in the deposition temperature range 180°C ˜ 220°C
Recent experimental developments have cast doubt on the validity of the common assumption that the distribution of tail states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon exhibits a single exponential functional form. We employ transient photocurrent decay measurements to determine this distribution of tail states. In our approach, however, we determine the distribution of tail states directly from the experimental data, without assuming, a priori, a specific functional form. It is found that these experimental results are consistent with other more recent experimental determinations of the distribution of tail states, suggesting the possibility of deviations from a single exponential distribution of tail states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon.