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The high intake characteristics of red clover silage has been recognised for many years (e.g. Thomas et al., 1985). Our previous study (Dewhurst et al., 2000) demonstrated the considerable intake and milk production potential of clover silages made using a new approach based on preparation of big-bales from wilted material with the use of biological inoculant additives. The objective of this study was to verify the positive results obtained with red and white clover silages using material taken from a further series of cuts taken in a subsequent year and to evaluate the legume silages with low levels of concentrate feeding.
Earlier work showed that red clover silage has considerable potential for milk production (e.g. Thomas et al., 1985), though low digestibility and difficulties ensiling clovers were seen as problems that needed to be addressed. Advances in legume breeding and conservation technology as well as a renewed emphasis on extensive organic production systems within Agenda 2000 meant that it was timely to reconsider the potential of legume silages for milk production.
Gender equality is considered paramount to the success of the Sustainable Development Goals and incorporated into global health programming and delivery, but there is great gender disparity within global health leadership and an absence of women at the highest levels of decision making. This perspective piece outlines the current gaps and challenges, highlighting the lack of data and unanswered questions regarding possible solutions, as well as the activity of Women in Global Health and efforts to directly address the inequity and lack of female leaders. We conclude with an agenda and tangible next steps of action for promoting women's leadership in health as a means to promote the global goals of achieving gender equality and catalyzing change.
Gender equity is imperative to the attainment of healthy lives and wellbeing of all, and promoting gender equity in leadership in the health sector is an important part of this endeavour. This empirical research examines gender and leadership in the health sector, pooling learning from three complementary data sources: literature review, quantitative analysis of gender and leadership positions in global health organisations and qualitative life histories with health workers in Cambodia, Kenya and Zimbabwe. The findings highlight gender biases in leadership in global health, with women underrepresented. Gender roles, relations, norms and expectations shape progression and leadership at multiple levels. Increasing women's leadership within global health is an opportunity to further health system resilience and system responsiveness. We conclude with an agenda and tangible next steps of action for promoting women's leadership in health as a means to promote the global goals of achieving gender equity.
We present results from our ongoing monitoring programs aimed at identifying and understanding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in extreme flux and spectral states. Observations of AGN in extreme states can reveal the nature of the inner accretion flow, the physics of matter under strong gravity, and they provide insight on the properties of ionized absorbers and outflows launched near supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We present new results from our long-term monitoring of IC 3599, WPVS007, and Mrk 335, multi-wavelength follow-ups of the newly identified changing-look AGN HE 1136–2304, and UV–X-ray follow-ups of the binary SMBH candidate OJ 287 after its 2015 optical maximum, now in a new optical-X-ray–high-state.
Phosphatase activity of Leishmania spp. has been shown to deregulate the signalling pathways of the host cell. We here show that Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes secrete proteins with phosphatase activity to the culture medium, which was higher in the Promastigote Secretion Medium (PSM) as compared with the Amastigote Secretion Medium (ASM) and was not due to cell lysis, since parasite viability was not affected by the secretion process. The biochemical characterization showed that the phosphatase activity present in PSM was higher in dephosphorylating the peptide END (pY) INASL as compared with the peptide RRA (pT)VA. In contrast, the phosphatase activity in ASM showed little dephosphorylating capacity for both peptides. Inhibition assays demonstrated that the phosphatase activity of both PSM and ASM was sensible only to protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitors. An antibody against a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) of Leishmania major cross-reacted with a 44·9 kDa molecule in different cellular fractions of L. mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes, however, in PSM and ASM, the antibody recognized a protein about 70 kDa. By electron microscopy, the PP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket of amastigotes. PSM and ASM induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IL-10 in human macrophages.
The aims of this report are, firstly, to review the activities of Commission 5 during the period since the IAU General Assembly in Delhi in November 1985 and, secondly, to draw attention to other relevant activities. It is based mainly on contributions from the Chairmen of the working groups and other members of the Commission, but it also includes some items of general interest that have been taken from the Commission’s Newsletter. The Working Groups and their Chairmen are as follows:
Because of unforeseen difficulties, Dr Sinzi, President of the Commission, was not able to prepare this Report. It was then too late for asking the Directors of the almanac offices and the other Members of the Commission for informations. This Report is therefore based on the material just available, and it must be apologized for some lack from which it necessarily suffers. If possible, any omitted facts which appear to be serious, may be included in the Report for the following triennium.
During the period under review two issues of the Astronomical Yearbook of the U.S.S.R. for the years 1971, 1972 have been published, and that for 1973 is in preparation. The positions and proper motions of the stars are in the FK4 system as recommended by Commission 4 in 1961. Further, as recommended at the meeting in Hamburg in 1964 (Trans. IAU, 12 B (1964), 105,1966) the IAU System of Astronomical Constants has been introduced into the tabulations of the day numbers, solar and lunar eclipses, ephemerides for physical observations of planets, and the factors S &C. The corresponding differential corrections to the Moon’s ephemeris as well as re-calculated eclipse data for 1971 have been tabulated separately in the Appendix to the Yearbook for 1971. As from the edition of the Yearbook for 1972, the lunar ephemeris j = 2 will be published in accordance with the recommendations adopted in Prague in 1967.
The regular publication of the ephemeris of the lunar crater Mösting A has been continued in the editions of the Yearbook mentioned above.
Fundamental ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, and planets have been printed in full conformity with the first part of the Astronomical Ephemeris circulated in advance by H. M. Nautical Almanac Office, Royal Greenwich Observatory.
During the period, there have been several major events which have effected the scope and interest of Commission 19. The most significant of these has been the dissolution of the BIH and IPMS and their replacement by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). The correlation of higher frequency fluctuations in the Earth’s rotation rate with changes in the Earth’s Atmospheric Angular Momentum is also significant. Many investigators now seem to believe that the “decade variations„ in the Earth’s rotation rate are caused by torques between the core and mantle caused by the uneven motions at the core-mantle boundary. These events and discoveries have made this an exciting period. It seems that the future holds more in the way of discovery due to the utilization of the more accurate and precise Earth rotation data coming from the modern observing techniques.
The period of this Report includes 1984 January 1, the date which was probably the most drastic caesura in the history of astronomical almanacs. It seemed, therefore, appropriate to concentrate here to the general aspects rather than to describe the works going on at the particular almanac offices. It is, however, hoped that the past years with their developments and changes will be followed by a period of consolidation and continuity. This would be also of great benefit for the users of the almanacs who still need some time for getting accustomed to so many innovations.
The report period 1982-84 was characterized by an again increased volume of material processed in data and abstracting centers, and by a growing clientele particularly of online services. The Working Groups of Commission 5 seek continued consultation with research object commissions so that the advanced documentation technology be efficiently employed toward specific demands of subject areas as to indexing, tagging, comprehensive, selective and inter-discliplinary retrievals. The guideline library for these purposes has been augmented by the First Dictionary of the Nomenclature of Celestial Objects by A. Fernandez, M.-C. Lortet and F. Spite (Astr. Astrophys. Suppl. 52 no.4, 1983) and by the Guide to the Presentation of Astronomical Data by G.A. Wilkins (CODATA Bull.46 1982); a new draft of the IAU Style Manual is before the IAU EC.
A Joint Meeting of Commissions 19 and 31 was held during the IAU General Assembly at Delhi to consider the recommendations for a new international earth-rotation service put forward by the IAU/IUGG Joint Working Groups on the rotation of the Earth and the conventional terrestrial reference system. Wilkins gave summaries of the MERIT programme of activities to monitor earth rotation and intercompare the techniques of observation and analysis and of the COTES programme to establish the basis of a new conventional terrestrial reference system. He reviewed the recommendations of the Groups, and then introduced a draft resolution of the Commissions. An amendment on the continuation of the use of the technique of optical astrometry was accepted and the resolution was then adopted without objection. Four papers on work related to the MERIT/COTES programmes were then presented. Paquet discussed the agreement in the results by different techniques for polar motion and universal time. Preuss presented a paper by Campbell and Schuh on short-period variations in earth-rotation determined by VLBI. Dickey discussed the intercomparisons between the earth-orientation parameters obtained by different techniques and then reviewed the close correlation between the length of the day and the angular momentum of the atmosphere. Finally, Vicente and Verbeiren presented new techniques for processing time and polar motion series.
This paper is a report from the Extreme Events Working Party. The paper considers some of the difficulties in calculating capital buffers to cover potential losses. This paper considers the reasons why a purely mechanical approach to calculating capital buffers may bot be possible or justified. A range of tools and techniques is presented to help address some of the difficulties identified.
We sought to estimate mortality and associated factors in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals in Michigan using a retrospective cohort study. For the study period of 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, all HIV-infected individuals were matched to hepatitis B and C cases. In the final Cox proportional hazards regression model, individuals of other [hazard ratio (HR) 2·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–3·2] and black (HR 1·3, 95% CI 1·1–1·6) race had decreased survival compared to white race. Similarly, injecting drug users (IDUs) (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·6–2·6), men who have sex with men (MSM)/IDUs (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1–2·2), individuals with undetermined risk (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·2–1·9) and heterosexual practices (HR 1·4, 95% CI 1·1–1·8) had decreased survival compared to MSM. Additionally, an interaction was found between current HIV status and co-infection. Mortality in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals remains a continuing problem. Our study can help in planning interventions to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals.
Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.