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Although paediatric medulloblastomas are well described in surgical literature, there is relatively little in child-and-adolescent psychiatry literature on them. Anxiety as the primary presenting complaint of a brain tumour, is rarely reported among the paediatric population with primary cerebral malignancy.
To highlight the prudence of an initial skeptical attitude towards the cause of symptoms, and also the importance of a comprehensive physical examination in child psychiatry units.
A 14 year-old Chinese boy is described, who presented at the outpatient psychiatric clinic with a 3-month history of increasing anxiety, difficulties with social interaction, deteriorating academic performance, interspersed with about two episodes of nausea per week. Previously, he was known as an intelligent boy who enjoyed a good relationship with his classmates. He has no other focal neurological deficits, and no recent life events were reported. A CT scan of the brain done revealed a large tumour distending the fourth ventricle. Histology revealed medulloblastoma.
We will also briefly review the relevant literature.
After surgical removal of the tumour, patient is described to be more participative in social interaction and almost back to his premorbid personality.
Primary brain tumours may manifest only with psychiatric derangements. Somatic symptoms typically seen in anxious patients, such as nausea, may herald a more sinister underlying cause. We advocate further study on the relationship between anxiety and brain tumours, as well as urge an increased vigilance on the part of healthcare professionals in constantly utilizing a biopsychosocial diagnostic model in child-and-adolescent psychiatry.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Seasonal influenza virus epidemics have a major impact on healthcare systems. Data on population susceptibility to emerging influenza virus strains during the interepidemic period can guide planning for resource allocation of an upcoming influenza season. This study sought to assess the population susceptibility to representative emerging influenza virus strains collected during the interepidemic period. The microneutralisation antibody titers (MN titers) of a human serum panel against representative emerging influenza strains collected during the interepidemic period before the 2018/2019 winter influenza season (H1N1-inter and H3N2-inter) were compared with those against influenza strains representative of previous epidemics (H1N1-pre and H3N2-pre). A multifaceted approach, incorporating both genetic and antigenic data, was used in selecting these representative influenza virus strains for the MN assay. A significantly higher proportion of individuals had a ⩾four-fold reduction in MN titers between H1N1-inter and H1N1-pre than that between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre (28.5% (127/445) vs. 4.9% (22/445), P < 0.001). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of H1N1-inter was significantly lower than that of H1N1-pre (381 (95% CI 339–428) vs. 713 (95% CI 641–792), P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the GMT between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre. Since A(H1N1) predominated the 2018–2019 winter influenza epidemic, our results corroborated the epidemic subtype.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
Iron-deficiency anemia is a public health concern that frequently occurs in pregnant mammals and neonatal offspring. Ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate (Fe-CGly) is a newly designed iron fortifier with proven effects in iron-deficient rats and weanling piglets. However, the effects of this new compound on pregnant mammals are unknown. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe-CGly on sow reproductive performance and iron status of both sows and neonatal piglets. A total of 40 large-white sows after second parity were randomly assigned to two groups (n=20). They were receiving a diet including 80 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 or Fe-CGly, respectively, from day 85 of gestation to parturition. The serum (day 110 of pregnancy) and placentas of sows were sampled. Litter size, mean weight of live born piglets, birth (live) litter weight, number of live born piglets, and the number of still-born piglets, mummies, and weak-born piglets were recorded. Once delivered, eight litters were randomly selected from the 20 litters per treatment, and one new-born male piglet (1.503±0.142 kg) from each selected litter was slaughtered within 3 h after birth from the selected litters, without colostrum ingestion. The serum, longissimus muscle, liver and kidneys of the piglets were collected. The iron status of the serum samples and the messenger RNA level of iron-related genes in the placenta, liver and kidney were analyzed. The results showed that litter weight of live born piglets was higher (P=0.030) in the Fe-CGly group (19.86 kg) than in the FeSO4 group (17.34 kg). Fe-CGly significantly increased placental iron concentration (P<0.05) of sows. It also significantly increased iron saturation and reduced the total iron-binding capacity of piglets (P<0.05) at birth. However, the results revealed that supplementation of Fe-CGly in sows reduced liver and kidney iron concentration of neonatal piglets (P<0.05), indicating decreased iron storage. In addition, the concentration of iron in the colostrum was not significantly changed. Therefore, the present results suggested that replacement of maternal FeSO4 supplement with Fe-CGly in the late-gestating period for sows could improve litter birth weight, probably via enhanced iron transportation in the placenta.
Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)-Protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol. However, the mechanism of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism of goose liver was poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose hepatocytes. Goose primary hepatocytes were treated with different PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235) for 24 h. The results showed that these inhibitors evidently inhibited PI3K-Akt-mTOR downstream signaling. Meanwhile, these PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression and protein content of genes involved in the de novo fatty acid synthesis, while increased the transcriptional and protein level of key factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the reduction of lipids accumulation induced-by inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was closely linked to the decrease of lipogenesis, the increase of fatty acids oxidation, and the increase of VLDL assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.
The ‘Ornicopter’ is a single-rotor helicopter without anti-torque rotor developed since 2002 at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands. The Ornicopter’s principle is similar to the movement of a bird’s wing and is based on actively flapping the blades up and down while rotating them around a shaft to generate both the required lift and the propulsive force. The shaft torque is no longer needed and thus the anti-torque rotor is redundant. The present paper describes the basic principles of the Ornicopter’s forced flapping, discussing the feasibility of the Ornicopter concept with respect to the power required, performance, stability, and vibratory loads. On the one side it is shown that the Ornicopter has a similar power requirement to a conventional helicopter, as well as very similar longitudinal and lateral stability and controllability characteristics to a conventional helicopter. On the other side, the Ornicopter generates higher vibratory loads than in a conventional helicopter, and its performance is strongly limited by the stall effect.
Control of the malaria vector An. gambiae is still largely obtained through chemical intervention using pyrethroids, such as permethrin. However, strains of An. gambiae that are resistant to the toxic effects of pyrethroids have become widespread in several endemic areas over the last decade. The objective of this study was to assess differences in five life-history traits (larval developmental time and the body weight, fecundity, hatch rate, and longevity of adult females) and energy metabolism between a strain of An. gambiae that is resistant to permethrin (RSP), due to knockdown resistance and enhanced metabolic detoxification, and a permethrin susceptible strain reared under laboratory conditions. We also quantified the expression levels of five antioxidant enzyme genes: GSTe3, CAT, GPXH1, SOD1, and SOD2. We found that the RSP strain had a longer developmental time than the susceptible strain. Additionally, RSP adult females had higher wet body weight and increased water and glycogen levels. Compared to permethrin susceptible females, RSP females displayed reduced metabolic rate and mitochondrial coupling efficiency and higher mitochondrial ROS production. Furthermore, despite higher levels of GSTe3 and CAT transcripts, RSP females had a shorter adult life span than susceptible females. Collectively, these results suggest that permethrin resistance alleles might affect energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and adult survival of An. gambiae. However, because the strains used in this study differ in their genetic backgrounds, the results need to be interpreted with caution and replicated in other strains to have significant implications for malaria transmission and vector control.
Applications of aminocyclopyrachlor in 2011 to turf resulted in brown and twisted shoots, leaves, and needles; shoot dieback; and in some cases, death of trees and ornamental plants adjacent to treated turf areas. Our research objective was to determine if a sensitive plant could be injured from wood chips (mulch) obtained from aminocyclopyrachlor-damaged trees, and to quantify movement of aminocyclopyrachlor from contaminated wood chips into soil and its subsequent uptake by roots into landscape plant tissues. Tomatoes were grown under greenhouse conditions and mulched with chipped tree branches collected from honey locust and Norway spruce damaged 12 mo previously by aminocyclopyrachlor. Analysis of tomato tissue for aminocyclopyrachlor residues 32 d after mulching found aminocyclopyrachlor in all mulched tomato plants, which was consistent with observations of epinasty on tomato leaflets. Aminocyclopyrachlor residues ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 ppb in tomato plants while chipped tree branches contained 1.7 to 14.7 ppb. Aminocyclopyrachlor residues in the potting soil below the mulch ranged from below the quantifiable limit to 0.63 ppb, indicating that aminocyclopyrachlor can leach from wood chips into soil, causing plant injury. These results indicate that trees damaged by aminocyclopyrachlor should not be chipped and used for mulch or as an ingredient in compost.
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) takes advantage of the recent advances in nanotechnology and sensing in order to monitor the behavior of a structure, assess its performance and identify damage at an early stage. Monitoring the state of strain throughout an entire structure is essential to determine its state of stress, detect potential residual stresses after fabrication, and also to help to establish its integrity. The Carbon nanotube thread was integrated into three-dimensional braiding materials and used for the first time as a sensor to monitor strain and also to detect damage in the three-dimensional braided composite material.
In this paper a literature review about the application of carbon nanotubes thread for sensors and smart materials used for SHM of braiding structures is presented. The test data show the braided angle is important parameter for structural health monitoring of three-dimensional. The research will provide a new integrated and distributed technologies for the built-in carbon nanotube sensor to detect the health of composite. The subject will provide the new idea and method for the development of smart composite materials research and application.
We investigated the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in livestock in northern China. Of the 163 clinical samples selected for this study, 20 were from throat swabs of dairy cows, and 143 were tissue samples (including lung tissue from one reindeer, hilar lymph node tissue from 55 cows, and liver tissue from 87 sheep). A total of 41 mycobacterial isolates were identified including two isolates of M. caprae and 39 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles of the two M. caprae isolates proved to be unique. This is the first report of M. caprae isolates from livestock in China. This study also confirms previous reports that NTM is common in livestock in northern China.
In order to achieve waste heat recovery using thermoelectric systems, thermoelectric materials showing high conversion efficiency over wide temperature range and high resistance against oxidation are indispensable. A silicide material with good n-type thermoelectric properties and oxidation resistance has been discovered. The composition and crystal structure of the silicide are found out Mn3Si4Al2 (abbreviated as 342 phase) and hexagonal CrSi2 structure, respectively. Element substitution of Mn with 3d transition metals is succeeded. Enhancement of Seebeck coefficient is observed in a Cr-substituted sample. The maximum dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is 0.3 at 573 K in air for the Mn2.7Cr0.3Si4Al2 sample. Electrical resistivity of the Mn3Si4Al2 bulk sample holds constant value for 48 h at 873 K in air. This is due to formation of oxide passive layer on the surface of the bulk sample. The 342 phase is a promising n-type material with a good oxidation resistance in the middle temperature range of 500-800 K.
The percentage infection of secondary symbionts (SS) (Wolbachia, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, Fritschea and Cardinium) in the exotic Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) invaders, commonly known as biotypes B and Q from China, were determined by PCR. In total, 373 biotype B and 1830 biotype Q individuals were screened for the presence of SS. Biotype B was more abundant than biotype Q from 2005 to 2006, and biotype Q was more abundant from 2007 to 2009. Each of the SS, with the exception of Fritschea, was detected in both biotypes B and Q; Fritschea was found in none of the samples examined. For biotype B, the percentage infection of Hamiltonella was the highest (92.0%) followed by Rickettsia (70.2%). For biotype Q, the percentage infection of Hamiltonella was again the highest (73.3%). Arsenophonus was the least common of the SS observed in both biotypes B and Q. The percentage infection of Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Hamiltonella in biotype B was each significantly higher than in biotype Q, whereas the percentage infection of Cardinium in biotype B was significantly lower than in biotype Q. The percentage infection of SS in biotypes B and Q varied from year to year over the period 2005–2009. Furthermore, within biotype Q, two distinct subgroups were identified which differ from each other in terms of their SS complement. We discuss these results in the light of the potentially influential factors and roles of the SS.
It is often considered that reduced genetic variation due to bottlenecks and founder effects limits the capacity for species to establish in new environments and subsequently spread. The recent invasion (during the past five years) of an alien whitefly, one member of Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, referred to as Mediterranean (herein referred to as Q-type) in Shandong Province, China, provides an ideal opportunity to study the changes in genetic variation between its home range in the Mediterranean region and its invasion range. Using both the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) and nuclear (microsatellite) DNA, we show that Q in Shandong likely originated in the western Mediterranean. We also found that the haplotype diversity was low compared with its presumed geographic origin, whereas microsatellite allele diversity showed no such decline. A key factor in invasions is the establishment of females and so bottleneck and founder events can lead to a very rapid and considerable loss of mitochondrial diversity. The lack of haplotype diversity in Shandong supports the interpretation that, at one or more points between the western Mediterranean and China, the invading Q lost haplotype diversity, most probably through the serial process of establishment and redistribution through trade in ornamental plants. However, the loss in haplotype diversity does not necessarily mean that nuclear allelic diversity should also decline. Provided females can mate freely with whichever males are available, allelic diversity can be maintained or even increased relative to the origin of the invader. Our findings may offer some explanation to the apparent paradox between the concept of reduced genetic variation limiting adaptation to new environments and the observed low diversity in successful invaders.
Fossil isopod crustaceans in the suborder Phreatoicidea have a known stratigraphic range from the Carboniferous to the Jurassic. Until now, all Mesozoic records of this group were thought to occur in fresh water habitats. A new phreatoicidean isopod fossil of the Triassic Luoping marine fauna, Yunnan Province, China, is described. The new species, based on several exceptionally complete specimens, is assigned to the genus Protamphisopus Nicholls and the family Amphisopidae Nicholls. This Chinese record is the first report of a Mesozoic-age phreatoicidean isopod outside of Gondwanan terranes, requiring a revision of known biogeographic patterns of the Phreatoicidea. Whether this record is from a marine habitat or is the result of a secondary deposition is not certain. Sottyella Racheboef, Schram and Vidal from the Carboniferous (Stephanian) Lagerstätte of Montceaules-Mines that was assigned to this suborder may be a decapod. Therefore, it has no relationship to this new species.
Limitations with current chemotherapeutic and vaccinal control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species continue to prompt development of novel controls, including the identification of new drug targets. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6-PI) has been proposed as a valid drug target for many protozoa, although polymorphism revealed by electrophoretic enzyme mobility has raised doubts for Eimeria. In this study we identified and sequenced the Eimeria tenella G6-PI orthologue (EtG6-PI) from the reference Houghton strain and confirmed its position within the prevailing taxonomic hierarchy, branching with the Apicomplexa and Plantae, distinct from the Animalia including the host, Gallus gallus. Comparison of the deduced 1647 bp EtG6-PI coding sequence with the 9016 bp genomic locus revealed 15 exons, all of which obey the intron-AG-/exon/-GT-intron splicing rule. Comparison with the Weybridge and Wisconsin strains revealed the presence of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion/deletion sites. Three SNPs were exonic and all yielded non-synonymous substitutions. Preliminary structural predictions suggest little association between the coding SNPs and key G6-PI catalytic residues or residues thought to be involved in the coordination of the G6-PI's substrate phosphate group. Thus, the significant polymorphism from its host orthologue and minimal intra-specific polymorphism suggest G6-PI remains a valid anti-coccidial drug target.