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The association between incarceration and psychiatric disorders has been noted. Yet, existing studies are cross-sectional or examine the risk of recidivism, which has limited the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders as a risk factor for incarceration. To overcome this limitation, this study used a prospective cohort to examine whether psychiatric diagnoses in early adulthood predicted incarceration throughout a 30-year follow-up. It tested the association between psychiatric diagnoses with future incarcerations, their number and durations, controlling for education and ethnic status.
This study merged data from three sources in Israel: a prospective 10-year birth cohort study of young adults aged 25–34, conducted in the 1980s (N = 4914) that included a psychiatric interview; data from the Prison Service, including the cause, number and duration of incarcerations; and from the Vital Statistics Registry on death records.
Multivariate analysis showed that substance-use disorders, antisocial personality and lower levels of education predicted future incarceration, their number and maximum duration. The remainder diagnoses were not significantly associated with future incarceration.
Results limited the prediction of future incarcerations to persons diagnosed with substance use and antisocial personality, and do not support an independent predictive association between additional psychiatric diagnoses and future incarceration.
Childhood adversity (CA) increases the risk of subsequent mental health problems. Adolescent social support (from family and/or friends) reduces the risk of mental health problems after CA. However, the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear, and we speculate that they are manifested on neurodevelopmental levels. Therefore, we investigated whether family and/or friendship support at ages 14 and 17 function as intermediate variables for the relationship between CA before age 11 and affective or neural responses to social rejection feedback at age 18. We studied 55 adolescents with normative mental health at age 18 (26 with CA and therefore considered “resilient”), from a longitudinal cohort. Participants underwent a Social Feedback Task in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Social rejection feedback activated the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the left anterior insula. CA did not predict affective or neural responses to social rejection at age 18. Yet, CA predicted better friendships at age 14 and age 18, when adolescents with and without CA had comparable mood levels. Thus, adolescents with CA and normative mood levels have more adolescent friendship support and seem to have normal mood and neural responses to social rejection.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations.
Pooled analyses of 14 studies comprising 21 023 individuals, on whom relevant cardiometabolic risk factors (including TG), HIV and ART status were assessed between 2003 and 2014, in SSA. The association between ART and raised TG (>2.3 mmol/L) was analysed using regression models.
Among 10 615 individuals, ART was associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised TG (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51–2.77, I2 = 45.2%). The associations between ART and raised blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, and other lipids were inconsistent across studies.
Evidence from this study confirms the association of ART with raised TG in SSA populations. Given the possible causal effect of raised TG on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence highlights the need for prospective studies to clarify the impact of long term ART on CVD outcomes in SSA.
The Charity Commission website lists in excess of 100 equine charities (Charity Commission, 2003) and this figure does not include those whose annual income is under £1,000. The size and nature of equine related charities varies enormously. In 2002 the top 6 equine charities (listed below) had a combined income of £40m and were responsible for rescuing approximately 600 horses, ponies and donkeys (Peplow, 2003).
International League for the Protection of Horses
Home of Rest for Horses
The Donkey Sanctuary
Horse and Pony Protection Association
Whilst these larger charities have grown organically over the years, many smaller charities are failing to survive and are in some situations having to be ‘rescued’ themselves by their larger counterparts. The public, consisting of present and potential donors, are offered a vast choice of charities to support. Philanthropic behaviour has at best stagnated in recent years (Sargeant & Lee, 2002).
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Hantavirus seroprevalence amongst the pet fancy rat owner group was 34.1% (95% CI 23·9–45·7%) compared with 3·3% (95% CI 1·6–6·0) in a baseline control group, 2·4% in those with occupational exposure to pet fancy rats (95% CI 0·6–5·9) and 1·7% with occupational exposure to wild rats (95% CI 0·2–5·9). Variation in seroprevalence across groups with different exposure suggests that occupational exposure to pet and wild rats carries a very low risk, if any. However incidence of hantavirus infection among pet fancy rat owners/breeders, whether asymptomatic, undiagnosed mild viral illness or more severe disease may be very common and public health advice needs to be targeted to this at-risk group.
Functional neurological disorders (FNDs), also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms unrelated to a neurological cause. The disorder is common, yet poorly understood. The symptoms are experienced as involuntary but have similarities to voluntary processes. Here we studied intention awareness in FND.
A total of 26 FND patients and 25 healthy volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance study using Libet's clock.
FND is characterized by delayed awareness of the intention to move relative to the movement itself. The reporting of intention was more precise, suggesting that these findings are reliable and unrelated to non-specific attentional deficits. That these findings were more prominent with aberrant positive functional movement symptoms rather than negative symptoms may be relevant to impairments in timing for an inhibitory veto process. Attention towards intention relative to movement was associated with lower right inferior parietal cortex activity in FND, a region early in the processing of intention. During rest, aberrant functional connectivity was observed with the right inferior parietal cortex and other motor intention regions.
The results converge with observations of low inferior parietal activity comparing involuntary with voluntary movement in FND, emphasizing core deficiencies in intention. Heightened precision of this impaired intention is consistent with Bayesian theories of impaired top-down priors that might influence the sense of involuntariness. A primary impairment in voluntary motor intention at an early processing stage might explain clinical observations of slowed effortful voluntary movement, heightened self-directed attention and underlie functional movements. These findings further suggest novel therapeutic targets.
A dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model (Hibler 1979) is used to simulate northern hemisphere sea ice for a 20-year period, 1961 to 1980. The model is driven by daily atmospheric grids of sea-level pressure (geo-strophic wind) and by temperatures derived from the Russian surface temperature data set. Among the modifications to earlier formulations are the inclusion of snow cover and a multilevel ice-thickness distribution in the thermodynamic computations.
The time series of the simulated anomalies show relatively large amounts of ice during the early 1960s and middle 1970s, and relatively small amounts during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The fluctuations of ice mass, both in the entire domain and in individual regions, are more persistent than are the fluctuations of ice-covered area. The ice dynamics tend to introduce more high-frequency variability into the regional (and total) amounts of ice mass. The simulated annual ice export from the Arctic Basin into the East Greenland Sea varies interannually by factors of 3 to 4.
The number of South American camelids (SACs) in England and Wales is increasing and with this comes a risk of new and emerging infections. Although classified as livestock, these animals are also treated as pets and may be in regular contact with humans. This paper reviews zoonotic diseases that have been identified in SACs in England and Wales, and which pose a potential risk to human health. We also highlight the importance of surveillance continuing to capture information on infections in SACs for the protection of both public and animal health.
The Protoplanetary Discussions conference—held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th–11th—included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.
This paper is an attempt to determine the extent and characteristics of suicide in 19th-century Ireland and the proportion of these that occurred in asylums.
The procedures used in this presentation involve analysis of data from the 1841 and 1851 Censuses of Ireland and the Reports of the Registrar-General of Ireland from 1864 to 1899 and the Annual Reports of the Inspectors of Lunacy, 1850 to 1899.
Reported suicides had relatively low rates in the 19th century, ranging from 0.9 to 3.3 per 100 000 per year. The proportion of these suicides that occurred in asylums was low at ~4%.
The reporting of suicide as a cause of death was relatively rare in the first-half of the 19th century in Ireland, but increased in frequency progressively throughout the second-half of that century. The reported numbers are likely to have minimised the real rates because of under-reporting.
We have observed the large, faint halos around NGC 6543 and NGC 6826 with the Isaac Newton Telescope, using IPCS and CCD (2-dimensional) detectors. Line intensities are measured every 1.5 arcsec over a total slit length of 3 arcmin (IPCS) or 2 arcmin (CCD). Several slit positions across the halos were observed, so as to obtain average properties of these two regions. Halo spectra are compared with spectra of the bright core, so as to distinguish between reflection by dust and genuine thermal emission; the halos are not reflection nebulae.
Star formation in the Galactic disc is primarily controlled by gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. It is not clear that this also applies to star formation near the Galactic Centre. Here we determine the turbulence and star formation in the CMZ cloud G0.253+0.016. Using maps of 3 mm dust emission and HNCO intensity-weighted velocity obtained with ALMA, we measure the volume-density variance σρ /ρ 0=1.3±0.5 and turbulent Mach number
= 11±3. Combining these with turbulence simulations to constrain the plasma β = 0.34±0.35, we reconstruct the turbulence driving parameter b=0.22±0.12 in G0.253+0.016. This low value of b indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving of the turbulence in G0.253+0.016. By contrast, typical clouds in the Milky Way disc and spiral arms have a significant compressive (curl-free) driving component (b > 0.4). We speculate that shear causes the solenoidal driving in G0.253+0.016 and show that this may reduce the star formation rate by a factor of 7 compared to nearby clouds.
The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4″ (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.
Péquignot et al. (1997) reported the discovery of a broad spectral feature to the blueward of Hβ, centred at a wavelength of 4852Å, in NGC 7027. This was conclusively shown to arise from the Raman scattering of He++ (2–8) UV photons by neutral H, and was the first detection in a planetary nebula. Raman scattering features had previously been observed in symbiotic stars: Raman scattering of O VI by neutral H was discovered by Schmid (1992) and also found for He II by van Groningen (1993). The large width of the resulting feature is mainly due to the conservation of the line width in frequency during the scattering process.
We recently reported the first detection of the deuterium Balmer series in emission in H II regions, performed at the CFHT (Hébrard et al. 2000a) and at the VLT (Hébrard et al. 2000b). These narrow lines are excited by UV continuum fuorescence and arise at the atomic interface between H II regions and molecular clouds.
Following this discovery, we used the CFHT with the Gecko spectrograph to observe Balmer lines in planetary nebulae. The non-detection of the deuterium Balmer lines in planetary nebulae represents the first observational evidence that this isotope was, as expected, destroyed in the parent stars.
NGC 7027 is justifiably THE template spectrum for PNe. Its vast range of emission species – from molecular and neutral to ions with ionization potential > 120eV – its high surface brightness and accessibiliy for northern observatories make it the PN laboratory of choice. However the quality of the spectra from the UV to the IR is mixed, many line fluxes and identifications still remaining unchecked from photographic or image tube spectra. Very deep spectra of NGC 7027 (emission line strengths <10-4 of Hβ) in the 0.65 to 1.05μm region (Baluteau et al. 1995) showed the presence of many faint emission lines. Pequignot & Baluteau (1994) showed that heavy elements from the 4th, 5th and 6th rows of the Periodic Table have much higher abundances than Solar, confirming the synthesis of neutron capture elements in low mass stars and providing new constraints on stellar evolution theory.
Two planetary nebulae previously classified as Galactic were discovered, on the basis of their radial velocities, to be located in the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy (Zijlstra & Walsh, 1996, A&A, 312, L21). At the distance of Sagittarius of ~25kpc, they are the closest extra-galactic PN. A detailed analysis based on ground-based spectra and radio continuum data was published (Dudziak et al. 2000, A&A, 363, 717); it was shown that the two nebulae are on the same evolutionary track with initial mass of 1.2M⊙ and almost identical light element abundances. One of the nebulae, Wray 16–423, underwent PN ejection about 1500yr before its twin He 2-436. On the basis of their similarity, a differential abundance analysis could be conducted. Third dredge-up carbon was found to be more abundant in He 2-436 and the first conclusive evidence for third-dredge-up oxygen enrichment was revealed (Péquignot et al. 2000, A&A, 361, L1).
The Local Group Census is a narrowband survey of all the galaxies of the Local Group (LG) with Dec ≥ −30°, being carried out as part of the Isaac Newton Group's Wide Field Survey programme. Observations are being obtained with the Wide Field Camera at the 2.5m Isaac Newton telescope, equipped with a mosaic of four 2k x 4k EEV CCDs covering a field of view of 34′ x 34′.