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The sense of bitter taste is critical for chickens to acquire and select feeds. It is important to understand the roles and mechanisms of bitter taste transduction in chickens. Denatonium is extensively used as a bitter taste receptor agonist to activate bitter taste receptors in recent studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological effects and the potential molecular mechanisms of dietary exposure to a strong bitter taste receptor agonist on the jejunal epithelial cells of yellow-feathered chickens. A total of 240 yellow-feathered chickens were divided into four treatments receiving a normal diet (Control), a low-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 5 mg/kg denatonium), a middle-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 20 mg/kg denatonium) and a high-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 100 mg/kg denatonium) for 56 days, respectively. The results showed that dietary denatonium reduced (P < 0.05) the growth performance of chickens. High-dose denatonium damaged the morphology of the jejunal epithelium and decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of Ca2+-ATPase, sucrase and maltase after 56 days of exposure. Meanwhile, high-dose denatonium increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expressions of bitter taste receptors, which resulted in enhanced apoptosis in jejunal epithelial cells after 56 days of exposure. Furthermore, middle-dose and high-dose denatonium exhibited increased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of claudin 2 and decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of occludin after 28 days of exposure. Only high-dose denatonium decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of occludin after 56 days of exposure. In conclusion, denatonium manifested deleterious effects on the jejunum of chickens in a dose–effect manner via damaging the morphology of the jejunal epithelium, and inducing apoptosis associated with bitter taste receptors. Our data suggest that bitter-tasting feed additives may have side effects on the growth and development of intestines in chickens.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
The study provides a comprehensive insight into how an initial receiving hospital without adequate capacity adapted to coping with a mass casualty incident after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion (FFCDE).
Data collection was via in-depth interviews with 11 key participants. This was combined with information from medical records of FFCDE patients and admission logs from the emergency department (ED) to build a detailed timeline of patients flow and ED workload changes. Process tracing analysis focused on how the ED and other units adapted to coping with the difficulties created by the patient surge.
The hospital treated 30 victims with 36.3% average total body surface area burn for over 5 hours alongside 35 non-FFCDE patients. Overwhelming demand resulted in the saturation of ED space and intensive care unit beds, exhaustion of critical materials, and near-saturation of clinicians. The hospital reconfigured human and physical resources differently from conventional drills. Graphical timelines illustrate anticipatory or reactive adaptations. The hospital’s ability to adapt was based on anticipation during uncertainty and coordination across roles and units to keep pace with varying demands.
Adapting to beyond-surge capacity incident is essential to effective disaster response. Building organizational support for effective adaptation is critical for disaster planning.
Salvia daiguii Y.K.Wei & Y.B.Huang, a new species from China, is described. Salvia daiguii belongs to Salvia subg. Glutinaria (Raf.) G.X.Hu, C.L.Xiang & B.T.Drew, sect. Sobiso (Raf.) G.X.Hu, A.Takano & B.T.Drew, and is distinguished from morphologically similar species by differences in its habit, leaves, inflorescences and flowers. It has a narrow distribution in a karst region of Yongding District, Hunan Province, central China. A key to the Chinese species of section Sobiso is also presented.
Anthropogenic habitat alteration and invasive species are threatening carnivores globally. Understanding the impact of these factors is critical for creating localized, effective conservation programmes. Madagascar's Eupleridae have been described as the least studied and most threatened group of carnivores. We investigated the effects of habitat degradation and the presence of people and exotic species on the modelled occupancy of the endemic fosa Cryptoprocta ferox, conducting camera-trap surveys in two western deciduous forests, Ankarafantsika National Park and Andranomena Special Reserve. Our results indicated no clear patterns between habitat degradation and fosa occupancy but a strong negative association between cats Felis sp. and fosas. Cat occupancy was negatively associated with birds and positively associated with contiguous forest and narrow trails. In contrast, dog Canis lupus familiaris occupancy was best predicted by wide trails, degraded forest and exotic civets. Our results suggest fosas are capable of traversing degraded landscapes and, in the short term, are resilient to contiguous forest disturbance. However, high occupancy of cats and dogs in the landscape leads to resource competition through prey exploitation and interference, increasing the risk of transmission of potentially fatal diseases. Management strategies for exotic carnivores should be considered, to reduce the widespread predation of endemic species and the transmission of disease.
Contextually appropriate interventions delivered by primary maternal care providers (PMCPs) might be effective in reducing the treatment gap for perinatal depression.
To compare high-intensity treatment (HIT) with low-intensity treatment (LIT) for perinatal depression.
Cluster randomised clinical trial, conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria between 18 June 2013 and 11 December 2015 in 29 maternal care clinics allocated by computed-generated random sequence (15 HIT; 14 LIT). Interventions were delivered individually to antenatal women with DSM-IV (1994) major depression by trained PMCPs. LIT consisted of the basic psychosocial treatment specifications in the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme – Intervention Guide. HIT comprised LIT plus eight weekly problem-solving therapy sessions with possible additional sessions determined by scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The primary outcome was remission of depression at 6 months postpartum (EPDS < 6).
There were 686 participants; 452 and 234 in HIT and LIT arms, respectively, with both groups similar at baseline. Follow-up assessments, completed on 85%, showed remission rates of 70% with HIT and 66% with LIT: risk difference 4% (95% CI −4.1%, 12.0%), adjusted odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 0.73, 1.72). HIT was more effective for severe depression (odds ratio 2.29; 95% CI 1.01, 5.20; P = 0.047) and resulted in a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Infant outcomes, cost-effectiveness and adverse events were similar.
Except among severely depressed perinatal women, we found no strong evidence to recommend high-intensity in preference to low-intensity psychological intervention in routine primary maternal care.
Developing metallic materials with a good combination of strength and ductility has been an unending pursuit of materials scientists. The emergence of high/medium-entropy alloys (HEA/MEA) provided a novel strategy to achieve this. Here, we further strengthened a strong-and-ductile MEA using a traditional solid solution strengthening theory. The selection of solute elements was assisted by mechanical property and microstructure predictive models. Extensive microstructural characterizations and mechanical tests were performed to verify the models and to understand the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanisms of the designated CoCrNi–3W alloy. Our results show good experiment-model agreement. The incorporation of 3 at.% W into the ternary CoCrNi matrix increased its intrinsic strength by ∼20%. External strengthening through microstructural refinement led to a yield strength nearly double that of the parent alloy, CoCrNi. The increase in strength is obtained with still good ductility when tested down to 77 K. Nanoscale twin boundaries are observed in the post-fracture microstructure under 77 K. The combination of strength and ductility after W additions deviate from the traditional strength-ductility-trade-off contour.
There is a standard trade-off in compensation contracts between the provision of incentives and insurance. We hypothesize that this trade-off influences the precision with which firm performance is measured. We find that firm outcomes are measured less precisely when chance plays a large role in these outcomes. Further, this precision is determined through the choice of shares outstanding. This has several novel implications. Nominal stock prices can remain constant over time, and firms with unpredictable cash flows should have more shares and lower stock price levels, all else equal. We find evidence consistent with these implications.
The authors developed a practical and clinically useful model to predict the risk of psychosis that utilizes clinical characteristics empirically demonstrated to be strong predictors of conversion to psychosis in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals. The model is based upon the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes (SIPS) and accompanying clinical interview, and yields scores indicating one's risk of conversion.
Baseline data, including demographic and clinical characteristics measured by the SIPS, were obtained on 199 CHR individuals seeking evaluation in the early detection and intervention for mental disorders program at the New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center. Each patient was followed for up to 2 years or until they developed a syndromal DSM-4 disorder. A LASSO logistic fitting procedure was used to construct a model for conversion specifically to a psychotic disorder.
At 2 years, 64 patients (32.2%) converted to a psychotic disorder. The top five variables with relatively large standardized effect sizes included SIPS subscales of visual perceptual abnormalities, dysphoric mood, unusual thought content, disorganized communication, and violent ideation. The concordance index (c-index) was 0.73, indicating a moderately strong ability to discriminate between converters and non-converters.
The prediction model performed well in classifying converters and non-converters and revealed SIPS measures that are relatively strong predictors of conversion, comparable with the risk calculator published by NAPLS (c-index = 0.71), but requiring only a structured clinical interview. Future work will seek to externally validate the model and enhance its performance with the incorporation of relevant biomarkers.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Characterize the expression kinetics of HIV-1 Envelope and their relationship to virus production at the cellular level. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In vitro and ex vivo laboratory analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Initial studies addressing the kinetics of cell surface. Envelope (Env) expression reveal that Env expression to peaks on day 2 post infection. Next steps include a series of experiments to compare the kinetics of Env cell surface expression with broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb)-mediated ADCC and the characterization of virus production kinetics in this same context. To be maximally effective, ADCC elimination of infected cells should occur before peak Env expression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Potent bNAbs to HIV-1 recognize vulnerable sites on the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein and are of great clinical interest due to their potential use in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Their effectiveness depends not only on the neutralization of viral infectivity, but also on the elimination of productively infected cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). On a cellular level, ADCC dynamics are determined by the timing and level of Env expression on the surface of HIV-infected cells. This study aims to delineate the expression kinetics of HIV-1 Envelope and their relationship to virus production. We expect that it will provide new insights into the utility of bNAb-mediated ADCC in treating and possibly curing HIV-1 infection; therefore results might have substantial impact on future HIV treatment strategies.
A low-glycaemic-index (GI) breakfast has been shown to lower blood glucose levels throughout the day. A wide variety of breakfast foods are consumed, but their GI values are largely unknown, hence limiting consumers’ ability to select healthier options. This study investigated the GI values of ten common breakfast (five Asian and five Western) foods in this region using a randomised, cross-over study design. Participants arrived after an overnight fast, and fasting blood sample was taken before participants consumed test foods. Next, blood samples were taken at fixed intervals for 180 min. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to test foods were calculated as incremental AUC over 120 min, which were subsequently reported as glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. In all, nineteen healthy men (nine Chinese and ten Indians) aged 24·7 (sem 0·4) years with a BMI of 21·7 (sem 0·4) kg/m2 completed the study. Asian breakfast foods were of medium (white bun filled with red bean paste=58 (sem 4); Chinese steamed white bun=58 (sem 3)) to high GI (rice idli=85 (sem 4); rice dosa=76 (sem 5); upma=71 (sem 6)), whereas Western breakfast foods were all of low GI (whole-grain biscuit=54 (sem 5); whole-grain biscuit filled with peanut butter=44 (sem 3); whole-grain oat muesli=55 (sem 4); whole-grain oat protein granola=51 (sem 4); whole-grain protein cereal=49 (sem 3)). The GI of test foods negatively correlated with protein (rs−0·366), fat (rs−0·268) and dietary fibre (rs−0·422) (all P<0·001). GI values from this study contribute to the worldwide GI database, and may assist healthcare professionals in recommending low-GI breakfast to assist in lower daily glycaemia among Asians who are susceptible to type 2 diabetes mellitus.