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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.
Much of the interest in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis has been in understanding conversion. Recent literature has suggested that less than 25% of those who meet established criteria for being at CHR of psychosis go on to develop a psychotic illness. However, little is known about the outcome of those who do not make the transition to psychosis. The aim of this paper was to examine clinical symptoms and functioning in the second North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2) of those individuals whose by the end of 2 years in the study had not developed psychosis.
In NAPLS-2 278 CHR participants completed 2-year follow-ups and had not made the transition to psychosis. At 2-years the sample was divided into three groups – those whose symptoms were in remission, those who were still symptomatic and those whose symptoms had become more severe.
There was no difference between those who remitted early in the study compared with those who remitted at one or 2 years. At 2-years, those in remission had fewer symptoms and improved functioning compared with the two symptomatic groups. However, all three groups had poorer social functioning and cognition than healthy controls.
A detailed examination of the clinical and functional outcomes of those who did not make the transition to psychosis did not contribute to predicting who may make the transition or who may have an earlier remission of attenuated psychotic symptoms.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is a major complication of pregnancy and leads to significant perinatal morbidities and mortality. Typically, induction of IUGR in animals involves the complete occlusion or ablation of vessels to the uterus or placenta, acutely impairing blood flow and fetal growth, usually with high fetal loss. We aimed to produce a model of reduced fetal growth in the spiny mouse with minimal fetal loss. At 27 days gestational age (term is 38–39 days), a piece of silastic tubing was placed around the left uterine artery to prevent the further increase of uterine blood flow with advancing gestation to induce IUGR (occluded). Controls were generated from sham surgeries without placement of the tubing. Dams were humanely euthanized at 37 days gestational age and all fetuses and placentas were weighed and collected. Of the 17 dams that underwent surgery, 15 carried their pregnancies to 37 days gestational age and 95% of fetuses survived to this time. The difference in fetal body weight between occluded and control was ~21% for fetuses in the left uterus side: there were no differences for fetuses in the right uterus side. Offspring from the occluded group had significantly lower brain, liver, lung, kidney and carcass weights compared with shams. Preventing the gestation-related increase of uterine blood flow induced significant growth restriction in the fetal spiny mouse, with minimal fetal loss. This technique could be readily adapted for other small animal.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal stress during pregnancy are two compromises that negatively impact neurodevelopment and increase the risk of developing later life neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and behavioural disorders. Neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone, are important in protecting the developing brain and promoting many essential neurodevelopmental processes. Individually, IUGR and prenatal stress (PS) reduce myelination and neurogenesis within affected fetal brains, however less information is available on the combined effects of these two disorders on the term fetal brain. This study aimed to investigate how IUGR and PS impairs the neurosteroid pathway when combined using a guinea pig model, and how these then disrupt the neurodevelopment of the fetus. Uterine artery blood flow restriction was performed at GA30-35 to induce growth restriction, whilst PS was induced by exposure of the dam to a strobe light during gestation commencing GA40 and repeated every 5 days. Exposure in this model caused reductions in hippocampal CA1 MBP immunostaining of male fetuses in both IUGR alone and IUGR+PS paradigms but only by IUGR in the subcortical white mater, compared with control males. Plasma allopregnanolone was reduced by both stressors irrespective of sex, whereas GFAP or MAP2 expression were not affected by either stressor. Female neurodevelopment, as assessed by these markers, was unimpeded by these compromises. The addition of prenatal stress did not further compound these deficits.
The developmental course of daily functioning prior to first psychosis-onset remains poorly understood. This study explored age-related periods of change in social and role functioning. The longitudinal study included youth (aged 12–23, mean follow-up years = 1.19) at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (converters [CHR-C], n = 83; nonconverters [CHR-NC], n = 275) and a healthy control group (n = 164). Mixed-model analyses were performed to determine age-related differences in social and role functioning. We limited our analyses to functioning before psychosis conversion; thus, data of CHR-C participants gathered after psychosis onset were excluded. In controls, social and role functioning improved over time. From at least age 12, functioning in CHR was poorer than in controls, and this lag persisted over time. Between ages 15 and 18, social functioning in CHR-C stagnated and diverged from that of CHR-NC, who continued to improve (p = .001). Subsequently, CHR-C lagged behind in improvement between ages 21 and 23, further distinguishing them from CHR-NC (p < .001). A similar period of stagnation was apparent for role functioning, but to a lesser extent (p = .007). The results remained consistent when we accounted for the time to conversion. Our findings suggest that CHR-C start lagging behind CHR-NC in social and role functioning in adolescence, followed by a period of further stagnation in adulthood.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
VLBA observations of the two-sided emission structures in 3C 84 have been used to study the ionized gas in the vicinity of the presumed accretion disk on parsec scales. Strong free-free absorption is seen with a radial gradient, but only upper limits have been obtained on a stimulated recombination line at 23 GHz.
Observations of five cepheids in Crux are described and annual epochs of maxima presented. The O–C diagram of S Crucis shows changes between two alternative periods. The observing method appears suited to sites with only a limited number of hours available.
The technology leading to very large aperture telescopes and their optics has progressed well in the period since 1984 and plans for many new large aperture telescopes have been made. Focal plane instrumentation continues to become more sophisticated or more efficient: multi-object capabilities, automatic instrument control and operation, and increasing use of CCDs are examples of areas to which this applies. The proportion of time devoted to observations using two-dimensional photoelectronic detectors has grown substantially at many observatories, particularly with telescopes of moderate aperture; and the use of high quantum efficiency array detectors is now being extended into the infrared spectral region. Important advances have also been made in instrumentation and techniques for ground-based high angular resolution interferometry.
While a number of site testing campaigns are in progress throughout the world, the dominant efforts seem to be associated with plans for very large telescopes. These plans, improved telescope technology, and the realization that astronomical observations from space will put increasing demands on ground-based observing facilities have given new impetus to site identification and to the optimum utilization of existing sites. A most excellent review of the factors involved in site identification is now available in the Proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Site Testing for Future Large Telescopes, edited by A. Ardeberg and L. Woltjer 1981. These Proceedings and Woolf’s review (1982, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 20 367) provide a solid background of current site evaluation factors.
A computer model of background and mass extinctions in a taxonomic hierarchy has been used to study the effects of different extinction patterns in a search for clues as to the causes of actual extinction events. Model taxa at four levels were built up from speciation events in adaptive space according to rules of origination which seem plausible biologically. The frequency distribution of species among the three higher taxonomic levels in the model is similar to that in living marine taxa which have good fossil records. Three mass extinction patterns were imposed on the model after species diversity had attained equilibrium (i.e., when speciation = background extinction): random; bloc (contiguous niches were cleared); and clade (all members of selected higher taxa were removed). Effects on the taxonomic profile varied with pattern. Four of the five historical mass extinctions resemble the effects of the random pattern. End-Permian families were harder hit than those in the random model, but this may be a result of an extremely high species extinction level. It is concluded that the effect of extinctions on the taxonomic hierarchy provides a tool to help in understanding extinction causes.
The attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS) is considered an at-risk indicator for psychosis. However, the characteristics and developmental aspects of the combined or enriched risk criteria of APSS and basic symptom (BS) criteria, including self-experienced cognitive disturbances (COGDIS) remain under-researched.
Based on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), the prevalence of APSS in 13- to 35-year-old individuals seeking help in an early recognition program for schizophrenia and bipolar-spectrum disorders was examined. BS criteria and COGDIS were rated using the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument for Adults/Children and Youth. Participants meeting APSS criteria were compared with participants meeting only BS criteria across multiple characteristics. Co-occurrence (APSS+/BS+, APSS+/COGDIS+) was compared across 13–17, 18–22 and 23–35 years age groups.
Of 175 individuals (age = 20.6 ± 5.8, female = 38.3%), 94 (53.7%) met APSS criteria. Compared to BS, APSS status was associated with suicidality, higher illness severity, lower functioning, higher SIPS positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms scores, depression scores and younger age (18.3 ± 5.0 v. 23.2 ± 5.6 years, p < 0.0001) with age-related differences in the prevalence of APSS (ranging from 80.3% in 13- to 17-year-olds to 33.3% in 23- to 35-year-olds (odds ratio 0.21, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.37). Within APSS+ individuals, fewer adolescents fulfilled combined risk criteria of APSS+/BS+ or APSS+/COGDIS+ compared to the older age groups.
APSS status was associated with greater suicidality and illness/psychophathology severity in this help-seeking cohort, emphasizing the need for clinical care. The age-related differences in the prevalence of APSS and the increasing proportion of APSS+/COGDIS+ may point to a higher proportion of non-specific/transient, rather than risk-specific attenuated positive symptoms in adolescents.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
Our Solar System is full of small bodies. The planets occupy an obvious role as the beautiful heavyweights, but smaller bodies are found throughout the Solar System in the form of asteroids, comet nuclei, and moons of Mars and the outer giants. Even Pluto has multiple moons. In spite of their abundance, there is not a large amount of mass in small bodies. An estimate for the mass of all the objects in the main belt puts it at around 4% the mass of the Moon (Krasinsky et al., 2002). Though many of their properties can be understood by looking at the surface and from surface samples, there are many questions that require looking inside the body.
For example, a central question of the bodies' origin and evolution is whether the asteroid or comet is an accretion of small objects into something larger, or is it a small piece of an originally larger object. An important clue to answering this question is the interior structure of the asteroid or comet nuclei. Being able to look inside would allow us to see the structure and whether the object is one solid piece, a small number of large pieces, or a lot of small objects held loosely together (the oft referred to “rubble pile”). In addition, understanding the interior structure is important if we want to move an asteroid or a comet nucleus, either for engineering reasons or to prevent one from striking Earth.
There are two ways of looking inside an object. Electromagnetic radiation or high-energy particles is one approach, which will not be discussed here save to mention that the power requirements are large and penetration depths of things such as “ground-penetrating radar” are not large. The second approach is to use mechanical waves propagating through the body, i.e., seismology.
The many successes of seismology have been described in the chapters in this book.
The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495±38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio than those fed CON, and increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets tended (P<0.10) to linearly decrease feed conversion ratio. In assessing the effects of including WDG diets without FE, concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (P<0.10) for steers fed WDG than steers fed CON. In addition, inclusion of wheat DDGS into the diet increased (P<0.05) concentration of CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (P<0.05) ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA compared with that from steers fed CON diet. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health.